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- Biography of Maria Montessori
Maria Montessori was born on 31 August 1870 in the town of Chiaravalle, Italy. Her father, Alessandro, was an accountant in the civil service, and her mother, Renilde Stoppani, was well educated and had a passion for reading.
The Montessori family moved to Rome in late 1874, and in 1876 the young Maria enrolled in the local state school on Via di San Nicolo da Tolentino. As her education progressed, she began to break through the barriers which constrained women’s careers. From 1886 to 1890 she continued her studies at the Regio Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci, which she entered with the intention of becoming an engineer. This was unusual at the time as most girls who pursued secondary education studied the classics rather than going to technical school.
Upon her graduation, Montessori’s parents encouraged her to take up a career in teaching, one of the few occupations open to women at the time, but she was determined to enter medical school and become a doctor. Her father opposed this course—medical school was then an all-male preserve—and initially Maria was refused entry by the head of school. She was undeterred, apparently ending the unsuccessful interview with the professor by saying, “I know I shall become a doctor”.
In 1890 Montessori enrolled at the University of Rome to study physics, mathematics and natural sciences, receiving her diploma two years later. This enabled her to enter the Faculty of Medicine, as one of the first women in Italy, and the first to study at the University of Rome. Montessori stood out not just because of her gender, but because she was actually intent on mastering the subject matter. She won a series of scholarships at medical school which, together with the money she earned through private tuition, enabled her to pay for most of her medical education.
Her time at medical school was not easy. She faced prejudice from her male colleagues and had to work alone on dissections since these were not allowed to be done in mixed classes. But she was a dedicated student, and on 10 July 1896 became one of the first female doctors in Italy, and with this distinction also became known across the country.
In September of the same year she was asked to represent Italy at the International Congress for Women in Berlin, and in her speech to the Congress she developed a thesis for social reform, arguing that women should be entitled to equal wages with men. A reporter covering the event asked her how her patients responded to a female doctor. She replied, “… they know intuitively when someone really cares about them.… It is only the upper classes that have a prejudice against women leading a useful existence.” 
On her return to Rome, in November 1896, Montessori went to work as surgical assistant at Santo Spirito Hospital in Rome. Much of her work there was with the poor, and particularly with their children. As a doctor she was noted for the way in which she ‘tended’ her patients, making sure they were warm and properly fed as well as diagnosing and treating their illnesses. In 1897 she volunteered to join a research programme at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, and it was here that she worked alongside Giuseppe Montesano, with whom a romance was to develop.
As part of her work at the clinic she would visit Rome’s asylums for the children with mental disorders (as they were called in those days), seeking patients for treatment at the clinic. She relates how, on one such visit, the caretaker of a children’s asylum told her with disgust how the children grabbed crumbs off the floor after their meal. Montessori realised that in such a bare, unfurnished room the children were desperate for sensorial stimulation and activities for their hands, and that this deprivation was contributing to their condition.
She began to read all she could on the subject of children with learning differences, and in particular she studied the groundbreaking work of two early 19th century Frenchmen, Jean-Marc Itard, who had made his name working with the ‘wild boy of Aveyron’, and Edouard Séguin, his student.
In 1897 Montessori’s work with the asylum children began to receive more prominence. The 28-year-old Montessori was asked to address the National Medical Congress in Turin, where she advocated the controversial theory that the lack of adequate provision for children with mental and emotional disorders was a cause of their delinquency. Expanding on this, she addressed the National Pedagogical Congress the following year, presenting a vision of social progress and political economy rooted in educational measures. She asked for the foundation of medical-pedagogical institutes and a special training for teachers working with special needs children. This notion of social reform through education was an idea that was to develop and mature in Montessori’s thinking throughout her life.
In 1899 Montessori visited Bicêtre Hospital in Paris where Séguin had further developed Itard’s technique of sensorial education in his schools for children with disabilities. Montessori was so keen to understand his work properly that she translated his book Traitement moral, hygiène et education des idiotes (1846) into Italian. Highly critical of the regimented schooling of the time, Séguin emphasised respect and understanding for each individual child. He created practical apparatus and equipment to help develop the sensory perceptions and motor skills of intellectually challenged children, which Montessori was later to use in new ways.
Montessori’s involvement with the Lega nazionale per l’educazione dei fanciulli deficienti led to her appointment as co-director, with Giuseppe Montesano, of a new institution called the Orthophrenic School. The school took children with a broad spectrum of disorders and proved to be a turning point in Montessori’s life, marking a shift in her professional identity from physician to educator. Until now her ideas about the development of children were only theories, but the small school, set up along the lines of a teaching hospital, allowed her to put these ideas into practice. Montessori spent two years working at the Orthophrenic School, experimenting with and refining the materials devised by Itard and Séguin and bringing a scientific, analytical attitude to the work; teaching and observing the children by day and writing up her notes by night.
The relationship with Giuseppe Montesano had developed into a love affair, and in 1898 Maria gave birth to a son, named Mario, who was given into the care of a family who lived in the countryside near Rome. Maria visited Mario often, but it was not until he was older that he came to know that Maria was his mother. A strong bond was nevertheless created, and in later years he collaborated and travelled with his mother, continuing her work after her death.
In 1901 Montessori left the Orthophrenic School and immersed herself in her own studies of educational philosophy and anthropology. In 1904 she took up a post as a lecturer at the Pedagogic School of the University of Rome, which she held until 1908. In one lecture she told her students, “The subject of our study is humanity; our purpose is to become teachers. Now, what really makes a teacher is love for the human child; for it is love that transforms the social duty of the educator into the higher consciousness of a mission”.
During this period Rome was growing very rapidly, and in the fever of speculative development, some construction companies were going bankrupt, leaving unfinished building projects which quickly attracted squatters. One such development, which stood in the San Lorenzo district, was rescued by a group of wealthy bankers who undertook a basic restoration, dividing larger apartments into small units for impoverished working families. With parents out at work all day, the younger children wreaked havoc on the newly completed buildings. This prompted the developers to approach Maria Montessori to provide ways of occupying the children during the day to prevent further damage to the premises.
Montessori grasped the opportunity of working with typical children and, bringing some of the educational materials she had developed at the Orthophrenic School, she established her first Casa dei Bambini or ‘Children’s House’, which opened on 6 January 1907. A small opening ceremony was organised, but few had any expectations for the project. Montessori felt differently, “I had a strange feeling which made me announce emphatically that here was the opening of an undertaking of which the whole world would one day speak.”
She put many different activities and other materials into the children’s environment but kept only those that engaged them. What Montessori came to realise was that children who were placed in an environment where activities were designed to support their natural development had the power to educate themselves. She was later to refer to this as auto-education. In 1914 she wrote, “I did not invent a method of education, I simply gave some little children a chance to live”.
The children in the Casa dei Bambini made extraordinary progress, and soon 5-year-olds were writing and reading. By the autumn of 1908 there were five Case dei Bambini operating, four in Rome and one in Milan. News of Montessori’s new approach spread rapidly, and visitors arrived to see for themselves how she was achieving such results. Within a year the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland began transforming its kindergartens into Case dei Bambini, and the spread of the new educational approach began.
In the summer of 1909 Maria Montessori gave the first training course in her approach to around 100 students. Her notes from this period became her first book, published that same year in Italy, which appeared in translation in the United States in 1912 as The Montessori Method, reaching second place on the U.S. nonfiction bestseller list. Soon afterwards it was translated into 20 different languages. It has become a major influence in the field of education.
On 20 December 1912 Montessori’s mother died at the age of 72. Maria was deeply affected by this event, and in the year following her mother’s death she brought her 14-year-old son, Mario, to Rome to live with her.
A period of great expansion in the Montessori approach now followed. Montessori societies, training programmes and schools sprang to life all over the world, and from then on Montessori’s life would be dedicated to spreading the educational approach she had developed by delivering courses and giving lectures in many countries. Before and during WWI she travelled three times to America, where there was much interest for her original approach to education. Her son Mario accompanied her during the last two journeys.
On returning from the USA after Mario’s marriage to his first wife, Helen Christy, at the end of 1917, Montessori settled in Barcelona, Spain, where a Seminari-Laboratori de Pedagogía, an opportunity to experiment with her new pedagogy, had been created for her. Her son and his new wife joined her, and her four grandchildren spent their formative years there: two boys, Mario Jr and Rolando, and two girls, Marilena and Renilde. Renilde, her youngest grandchild, was until 2000 the General Secretary and then President (until 2005) of the Association Montessori Internationale, the organisation set up by Maria Montessori in 1929 to continue her work.
Maria nursed an ambition to create a permanent centre for research and development into her approach to early-years education, but any possibility of this happening in her lifetime in Spain was thwarted by the rise of fascism in Europe. By 1933 all Montessori schools in Germany had been closed and an effigy of her was burned above a bonfire of her books in Berlin. In 1936, two years after Montessori refused to cooperate with Mussolini’s plans to incorporate Italian Montessori schools into the fascist youth movement, all Montessori schools in Italy were closed. The outbreak of civil war in Spain forced Montessori to abandon her home in Barcelona, a British battleship took her to England in the summer of 1936. Mario and his children joined her and later that summer the refugees travelled to the Netherlands to stay in the family home of Ada Pierson, the daughter of a Dutch banker. Mario, by now estranged from his first wife, was later to marry Ada.
In 1939 Mario and Maria embarked on a journey to India to give a 3-month training course in Madras (Chennai) followed by a lecture tour; they were not to return for nearly 7 years. With the outbreak of war, as Italian citizens, Mario was interned, and Maria put under house arrest. Her 70th birthday request to the Indian government - that Mario should be released and restored to her - was granted, and together they trained over 1500 Indian teachers. Still under house arrest, the Montessoris spent two years in the rural hill station of Kodaikanal, and this experience guided Maria Montessori’s thinking towards the nature of the relationships among all living things, a theme she was to develop until the end of her life and which became known as Cosmic Education, an approach for children aged 6 to 12. The years in India proved to be very important for Montessori, giving her the opportunity enrich her philosophy and approach to education. She met Gandhi, Nehru and Tagore, and was generally very much taken by the spirituality of the Indians and their generosity and kindness towards her.
In 1946 they returned to the Netherlands and to the grandchildren who had spent the war years in the care of Ada Pierson, only to return to India for another two years. In 1949 she received the first of three nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. One of her last major public engagements was in London in 1951 when she attended the 9th International Montessori Congress. On 6 May 1952, at the holiday home of the Pierson family in the Netherlands, she died in the company of her son, Mario, to whom she bequeathed the legacy of her work.
 Julia Maria, “’Le Feminisme Italien: entrevue avec Mlle. Montessori”, L’Italie, Rome, August 16, 1896. Quoted in Rita Kramer, Maria Montessori: A Biography (Chicago 1976), p. 52.
 Maria Montessori, Pedagogical Anthropology (New York 1913), p. 17. Quoted in Kramer, p. 98.
 E.M. Standing, Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work (New York 1984), p. 38.
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Maria Montessori: A Biographical Note
Dr. Maria Montessori was an Italian scientist (1870-1952) whose name has now come to be inextricably linked to preschool education. Her experiments and observation of young children at the beginning of the twentieth century has radically changed the way we look at the child today.
Maria Montessori was born in a small town called Chiaravalle in the Province of Ancona on August 31, 1870.
The time of her birth was a time of great turmoil, of nationalist fervour and unity. New social influences were sweeping through the newly unified nation under a popular monarchy. The world of science in Europe was expanding in all directions. The internal organs of the opened human body were being studied. The layers of the earth were being excavated and laid bare. The structure of matter was being closely examined. Darwin had forced biology to a new frontier with the Origin of the Species. Machines driven by the power of coal and electricity were conquering the world. Society had changed forever and this had triggered the process of social and economic restructuring at every level. Western science was dealing with the truth of the physical world and this had forced close examination of theology and spiritual beliefs. New universal philosophies like Theosophy, Fabianism Free Masonry were beginning to embrace a wider vision of the struggle of humanity across time and space.
The young Maria’s parents were Alessandro Montessori, a civil servant and Renilde Stoppani, a well educated woman. The family moved to Rome when Maria was five years old. At the age of 16, she attended a technical school, with an unusual interest in engineering. Developing a keen interest in natural science Maria became determined to enter medical school. Overcoming many challenges both within the family and in wider society, in 1896 she became the first woman in Italy to qualify as a medical doctor.
- Born: August 31, 1890
- High School: Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo
- University: Regio Instituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci
- Medical School: University of Rome
- Professor: Anthropology, University of Rome
- Died: May 6, 1952 Read More
As a doctor and an assistant in a psychiatric clinic, Maria Montessori visited asylums and came into contact with mentally retarded children. Within a short time she became co-director of the Orthophrenic School and became involved in the education of children with difficulties in learning. In the course of her pedagogical studies she became familiar with the ideas of Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel. She was particularly interested in the work of two Frenchmen Jean-Marc Itard and Edouard Séguin. Emphasising the education of the senses, these scientists had spoken of the need to respect each individual child and of the importance of developing perceptual and motor skills.
At this time, construction began on a new development in San Lorenzo, a poor area in Rome. The children of the workers damaged and vandalized the building sites while their parents were at work. The developers persuaded Dr. Montessori to open a school to provide these children with some occupation. The casa dei bambini was opened on January 06, 1907.
The casa dei bambini employed no teacher, just the porter’s daughter, to take care of the entire group of around 40 children who had been gathered together. Dr. Montessori equipped the school with some of the materials she had used in her earlier work in the Orthophrenic school. The children were between 2½ to 6 years. Observing them, Dr. Montessori discovered that the children worked with the materials without being prompted and often exhibited signs of deep concentration. She came to realise that, if in a suitable environment which nurtured developmental laws, children educated themselves without being taught by a teacher. For children of this age who were in a mixed age community the environment was the teacher. The children in the casa dei bambini made extraordinary progress and the news of young children learning to write and read on their own brought Maria Montessori fame across the world.
Within a very short time, what began in San Lorenzo, now known as the Montessori method, spread rapidly. Dr. Montessori went on to declare that she had ‘discovered the child’ and glimpsed ‘the secret of childhood.’ The school attracted eminent visitors – royalty, statesmen and academicians. Mussolini became a prominent member of the Opera Nazionale Montessori in Rome. Many Montessori schools were set up. From then on Dr. Montessori’s life became dedicated to this educational experiment. She ran training courses for teachers from different parts of the world.
Those were difficult times in Europe. Dr. Montessori, first living through World War I bore witness to the rise of Fascism and Nazism. Dr. Montessori founded the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) in 1929. The objective of the organisation – to uphold, propagate and further pedagogical principles and practice for the full development of the human being – represented her broad social mission and her belief in the freedom of the individual. Dr. Montessori believed that raising children in a harmonious environment prepared to fulfill their needs would create a better society and a better future.
Dr. Montessori lecturing to the students of the first course at Adyar. A palm leaf lecture hall had to be built to accommodate the large number of students from all over India and abroad.
By 1933 Montessori schools were closed all over Europe and her effigy was burnt in Berlin. Montessori left Italy never to return and made her home in Netherlands. Peace and freedom took on a new and important meaning. To deliver the world from evil forces of war, the education of the young took on new relevance.
Through this time of political turmoil, Dr. Montessori, and her son Mario, began a life of travel. She travelled to England, America, India and all through Europe, giving lectures and courses. In 1949 she received her first nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. On the May 6, 1952 she died peacefully in the Netherlands at the age of 82, bequeathing to her son the legacy of her work.
Today AMI centres throughout the world offer Montessori teacher training diploma courses recognised all over the world for their high theoretical standard and philosophical practice. AMI continues the work begun by Maria Montessori, heading a social and pedagogical movement which strives to uphold the rights of the children in society by helping the child to develop naturally in family and school and society.
Books Kramer, Rita Maria Montessori: A Biography De Capo Press USA 1988 Montessori in India 70 Years Indian Montessori Foundation India 2009 Montessori, Maria Child Education Kalakshetra Press, India 1936 Montessori, Maria Creative Development in the Child Vols 1 & 2 Kalakshetra Press, India 1998 Montessori, Maria Education for a New World Kalakshetra Press, India 1946 Montessori, Maria The Absorbent Mind Kalakshetra Press, India 2010 Samson, Leela Rukmini Devi: A Life Penguin Books India 2010 Wal, S. Education and Child Development Sarup & Sons, India 2006
Journals Maria Montessori: A Centenary Anthology Association Montessori Internationale, 1970 Montessori: 100 Years, Kalakshetra Publications 2009 Eckert, Ela Concretising Cosmic Education in India, A Montessori Historical Account, NAMTA Journal, Vol 30, No 02, Spring 2005 Around the Child, Association of Montessorians, Calcutta, India, Vol. 1-7
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Who Was Maria Montessori?
Montessori was born on August 31, 1870, in the provincial town of Chiaravalle, Italy, to middle-class, well-educated parents. At the time that Montessori was growing up, Italy held conservative values about women's roles. From a young age, she consistently broke out of those proscribed gender limitations. After the family moved to Rome, when she was 14, Montessori attended classes at a boys' technical institute, where she further developed her aptitude for math and her interest in the sciences, particularly biology.
Facing her father's resistance but armed with her mother's support, Montessori went on to graduate with high honors from the medical school of the University of Rome in 1896. In so doing, Montessori became the first female doctor in Italy.
Early Childhood Education Research
As a doctor, Montessori chose pediatrics and psychiatry as her specialties. While teaching at her medical-school alma mater, Montessori treated many poor and working-class children who attended the free clinics there. During that time, she observed that intrinsic intelligence was present in children of all socio-economic backgrounds.
Montessori became the director of the Orthophrenic School for developmentally disabled children in 1900. There she began to extensively research early childhood development and education. Her reading included the studies of 18th and 19th-century French physicians Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard and Édouard Séguin, who had experimented with the capabilities of disabled children. Montessori began to conceptualize her own method of applying their educational theories, which she tested through hands-on scientific observation of students at the Orthophrenic School. Montessori found the resulting improvement in students' development remarkable. She spread her research findings in speeches throughout Europe, also using her platform to advocate for women's and children's rights.
Montessori's success with developmentally disabled children spurred her desire to test her teaching methods on "normal" children. In 1907 the Italian government afforded her that opportunity. Montessori was placed in charge of 60 students from the slums, ranging in age from 1 to 6. The school, called Casa dei Bambini (or Children's House), enabled Montessori to create the "prepared learning" environment she believed was conducive to sense learning and creative exploration. Teachers were encouraged to stand back and "follow the child"—that is, to let children's natural interests take the lead. Over time, Montessori tweaked her methods through trial and error. Her writings further served to spread her ideology throughout Europe and the United States.
By 1925 more than 1,000 of her schools had opened in America. Gradually Montessori schools fell out of favor; by 1940 the movement had faded and only a few schools remained. Once World War II began, Montessori was forced to flee to India, where she developed a program called Education for Peace. Her work with the program earned her two Nobel Peace Prize nominations.
Death and Legacy
Montessori died on May 6, 1952, in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands. The 1960s witnessed a resurgence in Montessori schools, led by Dr. Nancy McCormick Rambusch. Today, Montessori's teaching methods continue to "follow the child" all over the globe.
- Name: Maria Montessori
- Birth Year: 1870
- Birth date: August 31, 1870
- Birth City: Chiaravalle
- Birth Country: Italy
- Gender: Female
- Best Known For: Italian physician Maria Montessori was a pioneer of theories in early childhood education, which are still implemented in Montessori schools all over the globe.
- Education and Academia
- Writing and Publishing
- Astrological Sign: Virgo
- University of Rome
- Death Year: 1952
- Death date: May 6, 1952
- Death City: Noordwijk aan Zee
- Death Country: Netherlands
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- Article Title: Maria Montessori Biography
- Author: Biography.com Editors
- Website Name: The Biography.com website
- Url: https://www.biography.com/scholars-educators/maria-montessori
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- Publisher: A&E; Television Networks
- Last Updated: October 28, 2021
- Original Published Date: April 2, 2014
- Supposing I said there was a planet without schools or teachers, study was unknown, and yet the inhabitants—doing nothing but living and walking about—came to know all things, to carry in their minds the whole of learning: would you not think I was romancing? Well, just this, which seems so fanciful as to be nothing but the invention of a fertile imagination, is a reality. It is the child's way of learning. This is the path he follows. He learns everything without knowing he is learning it, and in doing so passes little by little from the unconscious to the conscious, treading always in the paths of joy and love.
- Scientific observation has established that education is not what the teacher gives; education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the human individual, and is acquired not by listening to words but by experiences upon the environment. The task of the teacher becomes that of preparing a series of motives of cultural activity, spread over a specially prepared environment, and then refraining from obtrusive interference. Human teachers can only help the great work that is being done, as servants help the master. Doing so, they will be witnesses to the unfolding of the human soul and to the rising of a New Man who will not be a victim of events, but will have the clarity of vision to direct and shape the future of human society.
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Biography of Dr. Maria Montessori
Maria Montessori was born on the 31st August 1870 in the town of Chiaravalle, Italy. Her father, Alessandro, was an accountant in the civil service, and her mother, Renilde Stoppani, was well educated and had a passion for reading.
The Montessori family moved to Rome in 1875 and the following year Maria was enrolled in the local state school. Breaking conventional barriers from the beginning of her education, Maria initially had aspirations to become an engineer.
When Maria graduated secondary school, she became determined to enter medical school and become a doctor. Despite her parents’ encouragement to enter teaching, Maria wanted to study the male dominated field of medicine. After initially being refused, with the endorsement of Pope Leo XIII, Maria was eventually given entry to the University of Rome in 1890, becoming one of the first women in medical school in Italy. Despite facing many obstacles due to her gender, Maria qualified as a doctor in July 1896.
Soon after her medical career began, Maria became involved in the Women’s Rights movement. She became known for her high levels of competency in treating patients, but also for the respect she showed to patients from all social classes. In 1897, Maria joined a research programme at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, as a volunteer. This work initiated a deep interest in the needs of children with learning disabilities. In particular, the work of two early 19th century Frenchmen, Jean-Marc Itard, who had made his name working with the ‘wild boy of Aveyron’, and Edouard Séguin, his student. Maria was appointed as co-director of a new institution called the Orthophrenic School. In 1898 Maria gave birth to Mario, following her relationship with Giusseppe Montesano, her codirector at the school.
At the age of twenty-eight Maria began advocating her controversial theory that the lack of support for mentally and developmentally disabled children was the cause of their delinquency. The notion of social reform became a strong theme throughout Maria's life, whether it was for gender roles, or advocacy for children.
In 1901 Maria began her own studies of educational philosophy and anthropology, lecturing and teaching students. From 1904-1908 she was a lecturer at the Pedagogic School of the University of Rome. This period saw a rapid development of Rome, but the speculative nature of the market led to bankruptcies and ghetto districts. One such area was San Lorenzo, where its children were left to run amok at home as their parents worked. In an attempt to provide the children with activities during the day to fend of the destruction of property, Maria was offered the opportunity to introduce her materials and practice to 'normal' children. There, in 1907, she opened the first Casa dei Bambini (Children's House) bringing some of the educational materials she had developed at the Orthophrenic School.
Maria put many different activities and other materials into the children’s environment but kept only those that engaged them. What she came to realise was that children who were placed in an environment where activities were designed to support their natural development had the power to educate themselves. By 1909 Maria gave her first training course in her new approach to around 100 students. Her notes from this period provided the material for her first book published that same year in Italy, appearing in translation in the United States in 1912 as The Montessori Method, and later translated into 20 languages.
A period of great expansion in the Montessori approach now followed. Montessori societies, training programmes and schools sprang to life all over the world, and a period of travel with public speaking and lecturing occupied Maria, much of it in America, but also in the UK and throughout Europe.
Maria lived in Spain from 1917, and was joined by Mario and his wife Helen Christy, where they raised their 4 children Mario Jr, Rolando, Marilena and Renilde. In 1929, mother and son established the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) to perpetuate her work.
The rise of fascism in Europe substantially impacted the progress of the Montessori movement. By 1933 the Nazis had closed of all the Montessori schools in Germany, with Mussolini doing the same in Italy. Fleeing the Spanish civil war in 1936, Maria and Mario travelled to England, then to the Netherlands where they stayed with the family of Ada Pierson, who would later become Mario's second wife. A three month lecture tour of India in 1939 turned to a seven year stay when the outbreak of war had Mario interned and Maria put under house arrest, detained as Italian citizens by the British government. In India, Maria began the development of her approach to support the 6-12 child through 'Cosmic Education'. Her 70th birthday request to free Mario was granted and together they trained over a thousand Indian teachers.
In 1946 they returned to the Netherlands and the following year she addressed UNESCO on the theme ‘Education and Peace’. Maria was nominationed for the Nobel Peace Prize in three consecutive years: 1949, 1950 and 1951. Her last public engagement was the 9th International Montessori Congress in London in 1951. Maria Montessori passed away at age 81 on 6th May1952 in the Netherlands, bequeathing the legacy of her work to her son Mario.
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Who Was Maria Montessori?
Feminist. pioneer. icon..
Maria Montessori was an Italian physician, educator, and innovator, acclaimed for her educational method that builds on the way children learn naturally.
She opened the first Montessori school—the Casa dei Bambini, or Children’s House—in Rome on January 6, 1907. Subsequently, she traveled the world and wrote extensively about her approach to education, attracting many devotees. There are now thousands of Montessori schools in countries worldwide.
Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870, in the provincial town of Chiaravalle, Italy. Her father was a financial manager for a state-run industry. Her mother, raised in a family that prized education, was well schooled and an avid reader—unusual for Italian women of that time. The same thirst for knowledge took root in young Maria, and she immersed herself in many fields of study before creating the educational method that bears her name.
Beginning in early childhood, Maria lived in Rome, growing up in a paradise of libraries, museums, and fine schools.
Breaking Barriers in Education
Maria was a sterling student, confident, ambitious, and unwilling to be limited by traditional expectations for women. At age 13 she entered an all-boys technical institute to prepare for a career in engineering.
In time, however, she changed her mind, deciding to become a doctor instead. She applied to the University of Rome’s medical program, but was rejected. Maria took additional courses to better prepare her for entrance to the medical school and persevered. With great effort she gained admittance, opening the door a bit wider for future women in the field.
When she graduated from medical school in 1896, Maria was among Italy’s first female physicians. Though she was not the first female medical school graduate, as reported by many of her biographers, it does not detract from her accomplishment. Defying conventions, norms, and expectations to successfully make her way in this rigorous, male-dominated field required tremendous strength, dedication, and perseverance.
Birth of a Movement
Maria’s early medical practice focused on psychiatry. She later developed an interest in education, attending classes on pedagogy and immersing herself in educational theory. Her studies led her to observe, and call into question, the prevailing methods of teaching children with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
The opportunity to improve on these methods came in 1900, when she was appointed co-director of a new training institute for special education teachers. Maria approached the task scientifically, carefully observing and experimenting to learn which teaching methods worked best. Many of the children made unexpected gains, and the program was proclaimed a success.
In 1907, Maria accepted a challenge to open a full-day childcare center in San Lorenzo, a poor inner-city district of Rome. The students were under-served youngsters, ages 3 – 7, who were left to their own devices while their parents went out to work. This center, the first of its kind in the nation, and a high-quality learning environment, became the first Casa dei Bambini.
The children were unruly at first, but soon showed great interest in working with puzzles, learning to prepare meals, and manipulating learning materials Maria had designed. She observed how the children absorbed knowledge from their surroundings, essentially teaching themselves.
Using scientific observation and experience gained from her earlier work with young children, Maria designed learning materials and a classroom environment that fostered the children’s natural desire to learn and provided freedom for them to choose their own materials.
To the surprise of many, the children in Maria’s programs thrived, exhibiting concentration, attention, and spontaneous self-discipline. The “Montessori Method” began to attract the attention of prominent educators, journalists, and public figures. By 1910, Montessori schools could be found throughout Western Europe and were being established around the world, including in the United States where the first Montessori school opened in Tarrytown, NY, in 1911.
I celebrate Maria Montessori…and the fact that she overcame the stifling conventions put on women of the late nineteenth century and succeeded in establishing her own voice for all to hear and follow.
Phyllis Povell, "Montessori Comes to America: The Leadership of Maria Montessori and Nancy McCormick Rambusch"
Feminist. pioneer. icon.
In the years following, and for the rest of her life, Maria dedicated herself to advancing her child-centered approach to education. She lectured widely, wrote articles and books, and developed a program to prepare teachers in the Montessori Method. Through her efforts and the work of her followers, Montessori education was adopted worldwide.
As a public figure, Maria also campaigned vigorously on behalf of women’s rights. She wrote and spoke frequently on the need for greater opportunities for women, and was recognized in Italy and beyond as a leading feminist voice.
Maria Montessori pursued her ideals in turbulent times. Living through war and political upheaval inspired her to add peace education to the Montessori curriculum. But she could do little to avoid being ensnared in world events. Traveling in India in 1940, when hostilities between Italy and Great Britain broke out, she was forced to live in exile for the remainder of the war. There she took the opportunity to train teachers in her method.
At war’s end she returned to Europe, spending her final years in Amsterdam. She died peacefully, in a friend’s garden, on May 6, 1952.
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ABOUT MARIA MONTESSORI
A biography of dr maria montessori.
Maria Montessori was born on the 31st August 1870 in the town of Chiaravalle, Italy.
As her education progressed, she began to break through the barriers which constrained women’s careers. From 1886 to 1890 she continued her studies at the Regio Instituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci, which she entered with the intention of becoming an engineer.
Upon her graduation, Montessori’s parents encouraged her to take up a career in teaching, one of the few occupations open to women at the time, but she was determined to enter medical school and become a doctor. Maria was refused entry by the head of school. She was undeterred. Eventually, it seems, Pope Leo XIII interceded on her behalf. In 1890 Montessori enrolled at the University of Rome to study physics, maths and natural sciences, receiving her diploma two years later. This and the Pope’s intercession enabled her to enter the Faculty of Medicine, and she became the first woman to enter medical school in Italy. She was a dedicated student, and on the 10th July 1896 became the first woman to qualify as a doctor in Italy and with this distinction also became known across the country.
In November 1896 Montessori added the appointment as surgical assistant at Santo Spirito Hospital in Rome to her portfolio of tasks. Much of her work there was with the poor, and particularly with their children. As a doctor she was noted for the way in which she ‘tended’ her patients, making sure they were warm and properly fed as well as diagnosing and treating their illnesses. In 1897 she volunteered to join a research programme at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome.
She began to read all she could on the subject of mentally retarded children. In 1898 Montessori’s work with the asylum children began to receive more prominence.
Montessori’s involvement with the National League for the Education of Retarded Children led to her appointment as co-director, with Guisseppe Montesano, of a new institution called the Orthophrenic School. The school took children with a broad spectrum of disorders and proved to be a turning point in Montessori’s life, marking a shift in her professional identity from physician to educator. Until now her ideas about the development of children were only theories, but the small school, set up along the lines of a teaching hospital, allowed her to put these ideas into practice. Montessori spent 2 years working at the Orthophrenic School, experimenting with and refining the materials devised by Itard and Séguin and bringing a scientific, analytical attitude to the work; teaching and observing the children by day and writing up her notes by night. In 1901 Montessori left the Orthophrenic School and immersed herself in her own studies of educational philosophy and anthropology. In 1904 she took up a post as a lecturer at the Pedagogic School of the University of Rome, which she held until 1908.
During this period Rome was growing very rapidly, and in the fever of speculative development, some construction companies were going bankrupt, leaving unfinished building projects which quickly attracted squatters.
With parents out at work all day, the younger children wreaked havoc newly-completed buildings. This prompted the developers to approach Dr Montessori to provide ways of occupying the children during the day to prevent further damage to the premises. Montessori grasped the opportunity of working with normal children and, bringing some of the educational materials she had developed at the Orthophrenic School, she established her first Casa dei Bambini or ‘Children’s House’, which opened on the 6th January 1907. What Montessori came to realise was that children who were placed in an environment where activities were designed to support their natural development had the power to educate themselves.
By the autumn of 1908 there were five Case dei Bambini operating. Children in a Casa dei Bambini made extraordinary progress, and soon 5-year-olds were writing and reading. News of Montessori’s new approach spread rapidly, and visitors arrived to see for themselves how she was achieving such results. Within a year the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland began transforming its kindgergartens into Case dei Bambini and the spread of the new educational approach began.
In the summer of 1909 Dr Montessori gave the first training course in her approach to around 100 students. Her notes from this period became her first book, published that same year in Italy, which appeared in translation in the United States in 1912 as The Montessori Method, reaching second place on the U.S. nonfiction bestseller list. Soon afterwards it was translated into 20 different languages. It has become a major influence in the field of education.
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DR. MARIA MONTESSORI BIOGRAPHY
is the founder of the Montessori method of education. She started her first classroom "Casa dei Bambini" or Children's House in 1907. Montessori method of education stresses the importance of respecting children -"Help me to help myself". Montessori education celebrated its 100th year in 2007. Read about the exciting and fulfilling life of Maria Montessori.
Education and Culture
SAMATER MODEL SCHOOL
Revista médica de Chile
Marsha Familaro Enright
Maria Montessori's life and the essence of her educational philosophy and method are discussed, including how the Method develops the knowledge, habits, skills, and virtues to live in a free society.
The pedagogical thought of Maria Montessori supports the multi-class as it is able to respect and care for the natural interests of children. From semi-structured interviews made with six teachers of the multi-classes and three school managers of public institutions in the upper Caserta area, it emerged how Montessori pedagogy offers valid and effective suggestions for teaching in the multi-classes. In particular, didactic continuity, heterogeneity, the teacher-director and the learner-actor, time management, reciprocal teaching represent the salient points of the Method embodied in the multi-classes. As soon as it will be possible to return to the classrooms, temporarily closed due to the Covid19 pandemic, the qualitative exploratory research will be completed through the planned focus group, but not yet realized. Il pensiero pedagogico di Maria Montessori sostiene la pluriclasse in quanto essa è in grado di rispettare e curare gli interessi naturali dei bambini. Da una serie di interviste fatte alle docenti delle pluriclassi di alcune scuole pubbliche dell'alto casertano è emerso quanto la pedagogia Montessori offra validi ed efficaci suggerimenti alla didattica nelle pluriclassi. In particolare, la continuità didattica, l'eterogeneità, il docente-regista e il discenteattore, la gestione del tempo, l'insegnamento reciproco rappresentano i punti salienti del Metodo concretizzati all'interno delle pluriclassi.
Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences
Between 1907 and 1908, Maria Montessori's (1870–1952) educational method was elaborated at the Children's Houses of the San Lorenzo district in Rome. This pioneering experience was the basis for the international fame that came to Montessori after the publication of her 1909 volume dedicated to her “Method.” The “Montessori Method” was considered by some to be scientific, liberal, and revolutionary. The present article focuses upon the complex contexts of the method's elaboration. It shows how the Children's Houses developed in relation to a particular scientific and cultural eclecticism. It describes the factors that both favored and hindered the method's elaboration, by paying attention to the complex network of social, institutional, and scientific relationships revolving around the figure of Maria Montessori. A number of “contradictory” dimensions of Montessori's experience are also examined with a view to helping to revise her myth and offering the...
Cristhian E Perez V , Ana Cecilia Wright
THE STORY OF MONTESSORI IN BARCELONA: The excepcional story of love and affinity between Barcelona and Dr Montessori
Piotr A Podemski
Addie Sarpong (PhD)
Annali di storia dell'educazione e delle istituzioni educative
«Annali di storia dell’educazione e delle istituzioni scolastiche», 2018, 25, pp. 89-114
Erica Moretti , Alejandro Mario Dieguez
Maria Patricia Williams
Rivista di Storia dell’Educazione
Canakcioglu, N. G., 2017. The Influence of Existentialist Thought on Montessori Pedagogical Approach and Preschool Educational Spaces, In Researches on Science and Art in 21st Century Turkey, H. Arapgirlioglu, A. Atik, R. L. Elliott, E. Turgeon (Eds.), Vol.1, Gece Publishing, Turkey.
Nevset Gul Canakcioglu
Jeroen Staring , Ed Bouchard
Gumiko Monobe , Martha Lash
American Educational History Journal
Lucila T Rudge
Revista Innova Educación. Instituto Universitario de Investigación Inudi Perú
Juan José Ponce León
MONTESSORI METHOD FOR ORIENTING AND MOTIVATING ADULTS GUIDE FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE MONTESSORI METHOD TO ADULT EDUCATION
Fondazione Hallgarten - Franchetti Centro Studi Villa Montesca
Revista Actualidades Investigativas en Educación
American Journal of Play
Jurnal Pendidikan Islam
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Montessori School of Oceanside
3525 Cannon Road Oceanside, CA 92056 (760) 941-3883
“I have studied the child, I have taken what the child has given me and experienced it and this is what is called the Montessori Method.”
Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952)
1 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON MARIA MONTESSORI
Maria Montessori, the first woman M.D. in Italy , was one of the great pioneers in the study of the development of the very young. She has truly impressive credentials when, in 1908, she began her now famous method of educating young children.
A background in mathematics, engineering and biology preceded her study of medicine. Graduated from Rome University Medical School in 1896, she was appointed assistant doctor at the Rome University Psychiatric Clinic. Her work during the next three years with retarded children reflected not only deep compassion but also rigorous scientific quality.
The Ministry of Education invited her to give a series of lectures at Rome University on the education of exceptional children. In these lectures, she set down the foundations of scientific pedagogy in Italy and was subsequently asked by the state to found and head a school for exceptional children.
She designed the special materials and scientifically prepared an environment she deemed essential for the meaningful education of her pupils. Dr. Montessori succeeded brilliantly and received world acclaim. Montessori believed she could apply her revolutionary ideas to the education of the normal child, and to this end she embarked on a program of intensive studies at Rome University.
During the years from 1901 to 1908, Montessori studied philosophy and psychology. Made a Professor in 1904, she occupied the Chair of Anthropology at the University and occupied the Chair of Hygiene and the Magistero Femminile in Rome, one of the women’s colleges in Italy. In 1908, Dr. Montessori began her innovative method with a group of normal children in the slum area of San Lorenzo, Rome. In a year, her success with these children was of world- wide interest. A major landmark in education of the young children was established.
Between 1912 and the end of her life, she put her ideas into twenty-five books and pamphlets on various aspects of her education theory and practice.
Dr. Montessori died in Holland in 1952 at the age of 82 and was buried in Holland, her adopted country, whose love for freedom and concern for education she particularly valued.
Since 1980, Montessori schools have been established world wide. Montessori education was introduced to this country in 1912 with one of the early schools being established by Alexander Graham Bell in his own home. There are now over seven thousand established Montessori schools in this country. 2 SCHOOL PHILOSOPHY
Montessori School of Oceanside is dedicated to the philosophy of Dr. Maria Montessori in the belief that her teachings provide a scientifically based system which not only aids the child during early development but throughout life. The Montessori philosophy is based on love for the child, respect for the child’s dignity as a person, and a strong desire to help the child realize his or her fullest potential in society.
The school upholds the right of the child to progress at his own pace, in his own individual way and to be provided with the aids he needs for physical, emotional, social and intellectual normal development.
The school offers an environment where in an atmosphere of serenity and respect, the child finds:
A variety of equipment and material which motivates his spontaneous activity and desire to learn
Inner order and inner discipline
Confidence and sincerity in human interactions
People who lovingly care for his total welfare and development
The Montessori classroom is a social community concerned with the total development of children in a relaxed atmosphere, free of criticism and competition. Our goal is to promote the child’s growth toward autonomy, to give him a positive attitude toward school through an excellent foundation of creative learning. Attitudes and confidence developed while he is yet in formation will serve him throughout his lifetime.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
WHAT IS THE MONTESSORI METHOD?
Montessori is a philosophy and method of education which emphasizes the potential of the young child and develops this potential by utilizing specially trained teachers and special teaching materials. Montessori recognizes in the child a natural curiosity and desire to learn; the Montessori materials awaken the desire and channel his curiosity into a learning experience which the child enjoys. Montessori materials help the child to understand what he learns by associating an abstract concept with a concrete sensorial experience; in this manner, the 3 Montessori child is actually learning and not just memorizing. The Montessori Method stresses that children learn and progress at their own pace.
WHAT DOES MONTESSORI OFFER MY CHILD?
Montessori allows each child to experience the excitement of learning by his own choice rather than by being forced. Dr. Montessori observed that it was easier for a child to learn a particular skill during corresponding “sensitive periods” than at any other time in his life. These are periods of intense fascination for learning a particular skill. Montessori allows the child freedom to select individual activities which correspond to his own periods of interest and readiness and progress at his own pace. A child who acquires the basic skill of reading and arithmetic in this natural way has the advantage of beginning his education without drudgery, boredom or discouragement.
WHY ARE MONTESSORI CHILDREN GENERALLY SELF-CONFIDENT, OUTGOING AND SELF-RELIANT?
Montessori is based on a profound respect for the child’s personality. The child works from his own free choice and is allowed a large measure of independence which forms the basis of real self- discipline.
As each child progresses at his own pace and successfully completes the self-correcting exercises, he develops confidence in his ability to understand his environment.
Montessori presents endless opportunities among the children for mutual help which is joyfully given and received. Cooperative social interaction among children of different ages engenders a feeling of friendship, respect for the rights of others, and self-confidence.
These aspects of the Montessori program help eliminate the necessity for coercion which often causes feelings of inferiority and stress.
4 WHAT IS THE MONTESSORI CONCEPT OF FREEDOM IN THE CLASSROOM?
The Montessori environment includes a fine balance between structure and freedom. The concept of freedom carrying responsibility is gradually introduced from the time he enters school. The Montessori child has a wide variety of constructive paths to choose; he gains the skills and tools to accomplish his choice and he is taught the social values that enable him to make an enlightened choice. An undisciplined and unskilled child is not free, but rather he is a slave to his immediate desires. Allowing this behavior to proliferate merely forms a habit that is hard to change. The child does not benefit from destructive behavior and he becomes an unhappy child. Freedom does not involve being able to do what you want to do. It does involve being able to distinguish what is constructive and beneficial and being able to carry that our.
WHY SHOULD I SEND MY CHILD TO MONTESSORI SCHOOL?
Montessori is education…not a preschool school. The best time to start your child’s education is during the early years…2 ½ to 4 ½ when most of his intelligence and social characteristics are formed. Fifty percent of the child’s mental development occurs before 4 years of age. In a Montessori school, your child will learn to think in logical patterns and to deal with reality. He will become better prepared to cope with the complex challenges of tomorrow’s world.
WHAT IS MONTESSORI APPARATUS?
The Montessori classroom offers 500 unique educational didactic (self-teaching) materials which are used by the children in the classroom. They accommodate many levels of ability. They are not “teaching aids” in the traditional sense, because their goal is not the external one of teaching children skills or imparting knowledge through “correct usage”. Rather the goal is an internal one of aiding the child’s mental development and self-construction. They aid this growth by providing stimuli that captures the child’s attention and initiates a process of concentration. The child, then, uses the apparatus to develop his coordination, attention to details and good work habits. When the child’s environment offers materials that polarize his attention…the teacher is then able to give him the freedom he needs for healthy development.
5 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A MONTESSORI CHILD ENTERS THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM?
The habits and skills which a child develops in a Montessori class serve him for a lifetime. Since Montessori education is successful in developing concentration, self-discipline, a love of learning and social skills…the child is better equipped to enter new situations…he easily adjusts to the traditional school environment. Good habits, that are acquired early in a child’s life result in a lifelong pursuit of knowledge.
DOES THE MONTESSORI ENVIRONMENT FOSTER CREATIVITY?
Experience tells us that “creating” cannot be taught and that the child’s environment tends to either foster or restrict his creative potential. To foster creativity Montessori realized that the environment must itself be beautiful, harmonious, and based on reality in order for the child to organize his perceptions of it. Then the child is capable of selecting and emphasizing those processes necessary for creative endeavors. The child needs freedom if he is to develop creativity which is involved with the intellectual as well as the aesthetic processes of the mind. The child in the Montessori classroom is free from judgment by an outside authority that so inhibits the creative impulse.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EARLY YEARS
Dr. Maria Montessori, one of the most important educators of our time, emphasized the need for early education. She wrote, “The most important period of life is not the age of university studies, but the first one, the period from birth to the age of six. For that is the time when man’s intelligence itself, his greatest implement, is being formed. But not only his intelligence; the full totality of his psychic powers…at no other age has the child a greater need of intelligent help, and any obstacle that impedes his creative work will lessen the chance he has of achieving perfection.”
THE REAL NEEDS OF THE CHILD
Montessori attitudes and philosophy are most consistent with the needs of a child in the process of developing and learning. Montessori’s educational theories are based on the way a child develops naturally
6 and then correlated for use as an educational system consistent with these laws.
Dr. Montessori believed that no human being is educated by another person. He must do it himself or it will never be done. A truly educated individual continues learning long after the hours and years he spends in a classroom because he is motivated from within by a natural curiosity and love for knowledge. She felt, therefore, that the goal of early education should not be to fill the child with facts from a pre-selected course of studies but rather to cultivate his own natural desire to learn. Her experiments made the child the center of education; her program is adapted to the interests and the needs of the children. As a result, children concentrate with enthusiasm and achieve a real and profound understanding of their work. This intellectual progress is accompanied by emotional growth. The children become harmonious in movement, independent of work, and honest and helpful with one another.
PHASES OF GROWTH
Dr. Montessori discovered, and recent educational research has verified, successive phases of growth in children each with characteristic sensitivities which guide physical and mental development. These phases of growth, she called “sensitive periods”. They are outwardly recognizable by an intense interest which the child shows for certain sensorial and abstract experiences. Dr. Montessori discovered that the guiding sensitivities constitute needs in the child which demand fulfillment and are universal to all children. Thus, the validity of Dr. Montessori’s observation has remained constant since she began her task of the discovery of the child.
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER
The function of the teacher in a Montessori classroom differs considerably from that of the traditional teacher; hence, Dr. Montessori used the term “director/directress”. The directress brings the child into contact with the world in which he lives and the tools by which he learns to cope with his world. He/she is, first of all a very keen observer of the individual interests and needs of each child, the daily plan proceeds from the observation rather than from a prepared curriculum. The correct use of materials is demonstrated, as they are individually chosen by the children. The directress carefully watches the progress of each child and 7 keeps a record of his work. The individual child’s total development as well as his progress toward self-discipline is carefully guided by the directress who prepares the environment, directs the activities, and offers the child enticement and stimulation. The mutual respect of the student and the teacher-guide is the most important factor in this process.
THE UN-GRADED CLASSROOM
The greatest possibility for flexibility in permitting individual lessons and progress, while still retaining group sessions at no expense to the individual child, exists in the Montessori environment. The use of individual materials permits a varied pace that accommodates many levels of ability in the classroom. If the classroom equipment is to be challenging enough to provoke a learning response, it must be properly matched to the sensitivities and past experiences of the child. This experience is so varied that the most satisfying choice can usually be made only by the child himself. The Montessori classroom offers him the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of graded materials. The child can grow as his interests lead him from one level of complexity to another. He works in a group composed of individuals of various ages, abilities, cultures and interests and is not required to follow anyone else’s program…it permits the younger children a graded series of materials for imitation and the older ones an opportunity to reinforce their own knowledge by helping the younger ones. Hence, he adds to the group as he receives from it what he needs.
By being an involved parent, your child’s experience at Montessori School of Oceanside will be enhanced for both of you. Our door is always open for you to visit for a few minutes or a few hours, and of course, you are welcome to join whatever activity is going on, whether it may be reading stories, arts and crafts or eating lunch.
If your daytime schedule does not permit active involvement at our school during class time, you can still share in your child’s activities. Proudly display your child’s art work and projects at home (children love to see their creations decorate the refrigerator), and in the evening and on the way to and from the center, encourage your child to share his or her experiences. Talk about the fun things your child likes to do, the teachers, special friends, favorite lunches and whatever else interests your child.
8 You are encouraged to speak with your child’s teacher on a frequent basis. If there are any questions, problems or situations that need to be addressed, do not hesitate to contact the center owner operator.
OUR POLICY FOR NON-DISCRIMINATION
Our program is designed for children from six weeks to twelve years of age, and we offer programs for Kindergarten through 5th grade. Montessori School of Oceanside accepts applicants on a first-come, first- served basis and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, marital or veteran status, national origin, handicaps or political beliefs.
THE APPLICATION PROCESS
To enroll you child at Montessori School of Oceanside, we encourage both parents and children to visit the center and meet with the Administrator and teachers. During this time you will have the opportunity to tour the facility and have your questions answered.
When you have made the decision, please follow these steps:
1. Complete all necessary forms in the packet which include the enrollment form and emergency contact numbers. 2. Submit a current physical examination report and immunization record completed by a physician. 3. Pay the required non-refundable registration fee.
CONFIDENTIALITY OF INFORMATION
All information pertaining to a child and his/her family is at all times kept confidential. At times a staff member, along with the Director of the center, may review the child’s file for information which may be pertinent to the child’s needs.
By no means may the child’s family information or the child’s information be released to any outside influences, except for the licensing agents and departmental authorities. Other than this, parental approval must be given.
9 WAITING LISTS
Due to high demand for quality child care, there may not be a place immediately available for you child at our school. We do maintain a waiting list based on the date of the application and the child’s age. As openings occur in the center, parents are called in the order of their position on the waiting list.
Priority will be given, however to children currently enrolled in our school who are waiting to advance to the next age group and their siblings who have not yet enrolled, before new families are accepted.
We are not able to reserve a place for your child should you decline the opportunity to register when offered.
1. Children must be at least six weeks of age. 2. Children must have on file, prior to their first day of enrollment, a record of complete physical, an updated immunization record, evidence of freedom from tuberculosis and any other state requirements that apply. 3. All registration materials must be completed prior to enrollment. It is the responsibility of the parent/guardian to update the personal information in their child’s file. This information includes but is not limited to the home address, home phone number and schedule of attendance.
Tuition must be paid monthly or weekly. Tuition is due the first business day of each month or Monday of each week. Late fees will be assessed on late payments. For returned checks a fee is also assessed, and you may be required to make future payments in cash.
Tuition is still due in full according to your child’s fee schedule, even though your child may not attend. Should your child permanently withdraw from the school, no credit or refund of tuition will be given. Return to school would require payment of a re-registration fee.
For each additional child enrolled in your immediate family, you will be entitled to a 10% discount on tuition of the older child.
10 Should there be and extenuating circumstances that would prevent you from paying on a timely basis, please discuss this confidentially with the Director prior to it becoming a problem. Continued failure to pay tuition on a timely basis may result in terminating your child’s enrollment.
WHAT SCHEDULES ARE AVAILABLE
Montessori School of Oceanside is generally open from 6:30 am to 6:00 pm Monday through Friday, twelve months a year.
We offer full-time and part-time care and flexible scheduling on a space available basis. The center Administrator can provide you with specific information on what openings are available.
VACATIONS AND HOLIDAYS OBSERVED
We are closed on these national holidays: New Year’s Day, President’s Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, Christmas week and some state holidays. There is no tuition credit allowed for these days.
We may choose to close on the day before or after the actual holiday if that day falls on a weekend.
ATTENTION TO SAFETY
From the moment your child arrives until he or she is picked up at the end of the day, your child’s safety is our foremost concern. No child shall ever be left unsupervised. Our center is equipped with an intercom/telephone in each classroom to allow for emergency use.
Procedures for arrivals and departures have been developed to assure the safety and well-being of everyone at the center. Your cooperation in complying with them is appreciated.
Parents are to use only the front door for entering and exiting. Children shall always be walked into the building and be placed with a staff member before the parent leaves. Never leave a child outside the building for them to walk in alone or accompanied by another child. Parents must complete the sign-in/sign-out process on a daily basis and any applicable permission slips (medications, field trips) 11 When picking up your child, be certain that a staff member acknowledges that your child is leaving the building.
A child will not be permitted to leave with any person other than those designated in writing by the parent. Photo identification will be checked for any designated person picking up a child. There will be no exceptions to this policy.
If there are any changes to those authorized to pick up your child, or if you will be car-pooling with other parents, please advise us. Remember to use a child safety seat and buckle up when transporting your children at all times.
In addition to the physician’s examination and immunization records for enrollment, we also have a daily screening to observe each child’s health. If your child develops symptoms of illness during the day we will immediately isolate him/her from the other children and call you pick up your child. For the health and well-being of your child and others, please do not bring your child to school if he/she:
1. Has a fever or has had one during the previous 24 hours. 2. Is in the first 24 hours of antibiotic treatment. 3. Has a heavy nasal discharge that is not clear. (Nasal discharge that is clear may be caused by an allergy) 4. Has a constant cough. 5. Has symptoms of possible communicable diseases such as sniffles, reddened eyes, sore throat, painful ears, rash, headache, abdominal pain and/or fever.
If your child has a communicable disease, such as chickenpox, please inform the school so we can take the necessary precautions.
For more detailed health care information refer to our Illness Policy.
In the case of accident or injury we will make an attempt to reach you. If you are not reachable, the child’s pediatrician and emergency contact persons listed will be called.
IF YOUR CHILD NEEDS MEDICATION
Our staff will dispense prescription medications during the day only with parental written authorization. The form must be completed in full 12 with the name of the medication and the prescribed dosage and times to be given. The medication is to be in the original container with the child’s name and dosage instructions on the pharmacy label and must not be expired. Please alert us to any possible side effects of the medication and when it is to be discontinued. When medication is administered the time, date, amount and responsible party will be recorded.
Good eating habits and positive attitudes towards food should be established at an early age. For young children it is essential to have a nutritionally balanced diet for healthy growth and development. Our menus have been designed to include items from each of the four basic food groups with an emphasis on fruits and vegetables. Milk is provided with lunch. A variety of mid day snacks and drinks are also given. Those arriving early may be given breakfast.
Please advise your child’s teacher in writing of any food allergies or intolerance. A substitute item may be able to be offered to your child in place of that item.
There is a rest period during the day for all children. Each child is assigned his or her own mat or cot to sleep on and is welcome to bring in a favorite blanket or “cuddly”.
We accept children that are not yet toilet trained. When you, the parent, have determined that your child is ready to begin using the toilet, our staff will assist your child so as to maintain consistency between home and school behavior. The following guidelines are useful in determining if your child is toilet trained:
The child can wait 30 minutes between toilet times (our staff accompanies the children to the toilet approximately every 30 minutes). The child can express the need to go to the bathroom to a parent and teacher. The child does not need to wear diapers, even at nap time.
13 CLOTHING YOUR CHILD WILL NEED
Children are to be fully dressed when they arrive to our center. Because play and activity are such an important part of the curriculum, clothing should be comfortable and practical. Children will feel much more at ease participating in activities if they are not concerned about ruining their “good” clothing.
Children who walk must wear closed shoes at all times, preferably sneakers. Footwear such as sandals, flip-flops and boots do not offer the necessary safety and protection and therefore, are not permitted.
Every child needs to always have a complete change of clothing, including socks and underwear (if applicable), kept at school in case of soiling. If your child has changed clothing during the day, please take home the soiled items and replace them the next day.
All clothing items are to be labeled with either a commercial label (available in fabric and notion stores) or permanent markers with the child’s full name. A lost and found box is kept at the center, so please check it if you are missing anything. If your child comes home with an article of clothing that is not his or hers, please return it.
WHAT YOUR CHILD CAN BRING FROM HOME
When children have a specific “Show and Tell” time in class, they are encouraged to share items of interest, such as toys, games, books or tapes. Items of dangerous or violent nature, such as toy guns or sharp objects, or anything deemed to be unsafe by our staff will not be permitted.
In other instances, it is in the best interest of all children to not bring in personal items, as they may be lost or broken or create problems in an otherwise shared environment. A good alternative is to have a favorite toy waiting in the car when your child is picked up.
Under no circumstances should money, jewelry or valuables be brought in by your child.
HOW BIRTHDAYS ARE CELEBRATED
Birthdays are special and important occasions. At our center we want to make your child’s birthday fun and exciting. You are welcome to bring in a treat for everyone in your child’s class, preferably something 14 nutritious. Please make arrangements with your child’s teacher for any special plans, which can include songs, stories, or something to make your child’s birthday unique.
SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR PARENTS OF INFANTS AND TODDLERS
At Montessori School of Oceanside we know that very young children need extra special care and attention. Our loving staff provides a nurturing, soothing, stimulating environment for precious little ones. Plenty of hugs, cuddles, talking and listening, with close attention to your child’s needs, create feelings of warmth and security.
Children involved with activities to promote sensory development and awareness, physical development and cognitive skills on a daily basis. Details about your child’s behavior during the day are provided to you in our daily notice.
Please be sure that your child has the following items in the center on a daily basis, replacing and laundering them when needed:
1. Diapers for a full-time infant, eight disposable diapers will be needed daily. 2. Baby wipes – labeled 3. Six crib sheets – labeled. The use of crib bumpers is your decision. If you care to use them, please supply them. 4. Three changes of clothing (including socks or booties) labeled. 5. Sweaters and/or jackets suitable for indoor and outdoor changes in temperature. 6. Receiving blanket – labeled 7. Ointments – labeled (no powder sprays please) 8. Any foods, whether formula or solids, must be supplied by the parent and must be labeled. 9. Medication in most areas must be prescription only. Medication forms must be filled out before any medication can be administered to an infant. If the administration of non- prescription medication is permitted by regulations, a doctor’s note may be required. 10. All belongings must be brought to school in a tote bag. All items must be labeled, especially baby bottles and caps. All bottles must be accompanied with a cap. This is a government requirement. We are sorry but we cannot be responsible for any unlabeled item. 11. Any items that are not listed above which you care to bring should be labeled. The center cannot be responsible for 15 disappearing items. With your cooperation we can keep disappearing items to a minimum. 12. Please do not use your infant’s bin for storage. This only creates a cluttered atmosphere and a home for germs. Infant’s belongings must be taken home nightly and laundered (if needed).
Eating times for this age group are special times, and individual preferences will be recognized. Bottles are never propped and food is portioned and made to appropriate consistency. If you are able to visit the center at this time, you are always welcome to join your child for meals, including breast feeding.
TIPS FOR THE FIRST DAY OF SCHOOL
The first day of school can be both exciting and unsettling. There are several ways you can assist your child with what might be his/her first experience away from you and the security of your home.
Determine whether past experiences indicate that your child might have a problem leaving you. Determine whether you might have a problem leaving your child. Take your child to the center to visit prior to the first day. Have your child meet his/her teacher; walk around the building; peek in through the windows; look at the playground equipment, the parking lot, side lawns, trees and other surroundings. The more familiar your child is with our center and the consistency of your daily routine in arriving, the more comfortable he/she will be. With some parents and children, a transition period into the new experience of child care may ease the separation. Perhaps the first day or few days that your child attends could be less than the full schedule to allow time for the adjustment. Soon your child will look forward to coming to us with assurance that Mommy or Daddy will return.
For some children, going to school is a happy uneventful break from family or caregivers. For other children the experience is both difficult and frightening. Until that first morning (or the first few days) there is no way to be absolutely sure of how a child will react. Sometimes, days later, there is a delayed reaction accompanied by tears and non-verbalized fears. The way parents react can play an important role in a child’s enthusiasm and acceptance. The language of support, before the event, can help dispel some of these fears. 16
“I will go to work, and then I will pick you up.” “You will have so much fun.” “There will be toys and games to play with.” “Your teacher will help you in the bathroom.” “You can play with trucks.” “You can paint and color.” “Your teacher will be my friend too.”
On the first morning or afternoon it is wise to arrive a little earlier so that you are not in a rush. Walk or carry your child into the center and take your child to his/her teacher. Introduce your child if your child is old enough to understand. If your child is too young to understand introductions, simply introduce your child to the caregiver and the staff will take over with the welcome. Since every child will have a cubby with his/her name it would be a good idea to help your child locate the cubby and place the things you have brought from home in the cubby. Then it is time to think about leaving.
Be honest with your child. “I’m leaving for work now. I will be back at 4:00.” “Give me a big hug and a kiss.” It is not wise to say, especially if your youngster begins to cry or tantrum, “I’ll be back in just a minute” or “I’m just going to the movies.” Honesty and reality are always best. At this time the staff will go to work to interest your child in something around the center. Should your youngster continue to be upset, then we would contact you by telephone. This generally doesn’t happen. Tears may flow for just a few minutes.
At the end of the day, park your car and come into the center. Your child will probably be looking for you, and the staff will have him/her ready to go. If for some reason you will be delayed, please call the center. Make sure the staff sees you take your child, and remember to sign out from the center.
Repeat this procedure on the days following the first day. If you have any concerns do not hesitate to call the center. Together we will plan how to overcome problems should they arise. On the first day of school, please understand that it is perfectly natural for you to walk out of the center and feel sad and/or apprehensive. A good cry has helped many a parent between the center and the work place. Rest assured your child is in safe, caring hands.
During the week prior to your child’s enrollment in the center the staff will be glad to receive items that will be necessary in caring for your child. Otherwise, you can bring them with you on the first morning. 17
TERMINATION OF ENROLLMENT
In certain circumstances, it may be necessary for the Director to decide to discontinue a child’s attendance. Such a decision would be based on whether it is in the best interest of that child, the other children in the class and the overall operation of the center to terminate enrollment. Every effort will be made to correct a problematic situation (i.e. moving the child to another class) before a final decision is made. Termination of enrollment may be the result of the following:
Non-payment of tuition (immediate termination) Abuse of children, staff or property Continued violation of our policies Disruptive or dangerous behavior The center’s inability to meet the child’s needs.
Whenever possible, in the event of termination of enrollment, written notification of one week will be provided to the parent.
OUR RESPONSIBILITY FOR REPORTING SUSPECTED ABUSE AND NEGLECT
Child abuse and neglect is a terrible crisis. As caring concerned parents and child care providers we take very seriously our responsibility, as require by law, to report suspected cases.
Our staff has been trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of abuse and neglect.
Abuse and neglect, whether it may be physical or emotional, can happen in all types of families, from all walks of life and in varying degrees. In all instances the damage to children can last a lifetime and certainly affect their self-esteem and developmental process.
When abuse occurs, both children and parents are the victims and need support, understanding and help. Parents may ask the center Administrator for a confidential referral for outside intervention and suggested resources for prevention and assistance in dealing with this problem.
Should a parent or staff member suspect abuse or neglect, these steps are usual course of action:
18 1. Staff member will discuss the suspected case with the center Director. 2. The Director will observe the child, talk with the child and further seek to determine if abuse or neglect may have occurred. These findings will be documented in the child’s file. 3. The Director will talk with the child’s parents about the concerns. 4. The staff and Administrator will make a determination of the need to call the appropriate child abuse agency. 5. A social worker or representative of the agency may visit the child at our center or the child’s home.
In a situation deemed to require immediate attention, a staff member may call the abuse hotline directly.
We are also very concerned about preventing abuse in the child care center. To protect the children in our care, the following measures are taken:
Extensive screening of all staff members, including criminal background checks. Close observations and performance evaluations of staff. Involved, capable supervision constantly monitoring the classrooms, activities and staff members through closed circuit television and observation windows.
Electrostal History and Art Museum
Electrostal History and Art Museum - All You Need to Know BEFORE You Go (with Photos)
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Electrostal History and Art Museum Information
Jewish Encyclopedia of Russia Surnames starting with the letter P
Translated by josif and vitaly charny.
The following list is a translation of names and minimal personal data for 8,500 people included in Jewish Encyclopedia of Russia (Rossiyskaya Evreiskaya Entsiclopediya); first edition; 1995, Moscow.
Famous people who are listed in the book, which in fact is a biographical dictionary, were born in Russia, the USSR, the Russian Empire, or lived there. This is the first edition of this kind in Russia and a large group of specialists from Russia, Israel and other countries participated in the project.
There are many more well known people in Russia to be included in the next edition of the book. We have to remember that the success of many of these people was achieved against all odds related to limited opportunities that Jews had in Russia.
The translation is an attempt to inform people about this additional source available for researchers.
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