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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)
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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .
For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .
This guide does not apply to OU Law undergraduate students . If you are studying a module beginning with W1xx, W2xx or W3xx, you should refer to the Quick guide to Cite Them Right referencing for Law modules .
Table of contents
In-text citations and full references.
- Secondary referencing
- Page numbers
- Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author
Full reference examples
Referencing consists of two elements:
- in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
- full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.
To see a reference list and intext citations check out this example assignment on Cite Them Right .
Difference between reference list and bibliography
a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text
a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment
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Examples of in-text citations
You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below. Alternatively you can see examples of setting out in-text citations in Cite Them Right .
Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.
Online module materials
(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).
When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).
OR, if there is no named author:
The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).
Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).
The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633§ion=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).
You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:
The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014§ion=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).
The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941§ion=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).
Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).
Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).
Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.
For ebooks that do not contain print publication details
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of book . Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date).
Example with one author:
Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy . Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 23 June 2021).
Example with two or three authors:
Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.
Example with four or more authors:
Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.
Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.
Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.
Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.
Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference.
If accessed online:
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).
Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326.
Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326. Available at: https://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/log... (Accessed: 27 January 2023).
Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2010.523145
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.
Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).
Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).
The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).
Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.
Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of photograph . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Kitton, J. (2013) Golden sunset . Available at: https://www.jameskittophotography.co.uk/photo_8692150.html (Accessed: 21 November 2021).
stanitsa_dance (2021) Cossack dance ensemble . Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/COI_slphWJ_/ (Accessed: 13 June 2023).
Note: If no title can be found then replace it with a short description.
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A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples
Published on 14 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 15 September 2023.
Referencing is an important part of academic writing. It tells your readers what sources you’ve used and how to find them.
Harvard is the most common referencing style used in UK universities. In Harvard style, the author and year are cited in-text, and full details of the source are given in a reference list .
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Table of contents
Harvard in-text citation, creating a harvard reference list, harvard referencing examples, referencing sources with no author or date, frequently asked questions about harvard referencing.
A Harvard in-text citation appears in brackets beside any quotation or paraphrase of a source. It gives the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication, as well as a page number or range locating the passage referenced, if applicable:
Note that ‘p.’ is used for a single page, ‘pp.’ for multiple pages (e.g. ‘pp. 1–5’).
An in-text citation usually appears immediately after the quotation or paraphrase in question. It may also appear at the end of the relevant sentence, as long as it’s clear what it refers to.
When your sentence already mentions the name of the author, it should not be repeated in the citation:
Sources with multiple authors
When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors’ names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ‘ et al. ’:
Sources with no page numbers
Some sources, such as websites , often don’t have page numbers. If the source is a short text, you can simply leave out the page number. With longer sources, you can use an alternate locator such as a subheading or paragraph number if you need to specify where to find the quote:
Multiple citations at the same point
When you need multiple citations to appear at the same point in your text – for example, when you refer to several sources with one phrase – you can present them in the same set of brackets, separated by semicolons. List them in order of publication date:
Multiple sources with the same author and date
If you cite multiple sources by the same author which were published in the same year, it’s important to distinguish between them in your citations. To do this, insert an ‘a’ after the year in the first one you reference, a ‘b’ in the second, and so on:
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A bibliography or reference list appears at the end of your text. It lists all your sources in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, giving complete information so that the reader can look them up if necessary.
The reference entry starts with the author’s last name followed by initial(s). Only the first word of the title is capitalised (as well as any proper nouns).
Sources with multiple authors in the reference list
As with in-text citations, up to three authors should be listed; when there are four or more, list only the first author followed by ‘ et al. ’:
Reference list entries vary according to source type, since different information is relevant for different sources. Formats and examples for the most commonly used source types are given below.
- Entire book
- Book chapter
- Translated book
- Edition of a book
- Print journal
- Online-only journal with DOI
- Online-only journal with no DOI
- General web page
- Online article or blog
- Social media post
Sometimes you won’t have all the information you need for a reference. This section covers what to do when a source lacks a publication date or named author.
No publication date
When a source doesn’t have a clear publication date – for example, a constantly updated reference source like Wikipedia or an obscure historical document which can’t be accurately dated – you can replace it with the words ‘no date’:
Note that when you do this with an online source, you should still include an access date, as in the example.
When a source lacks a clearly identified author, there’s often an appropriate corporate source – the organisation responsible for the source – whom you can credit as author instead, as in the Google and Wikipedia examples above.
When that’s not the case, you can just replace it with the title of the source in both the in-text citation and the reference list:
Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.
Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.
A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.
The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.
In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’
Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:
- A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
- A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.
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Caulfield, J. (2023, September 15). A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 30 October 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-style/
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If you are using Chicago style footnotes or endnotes, you should include a bibliography at the end of your paper that provides complete citation information for all of the sources you cite in your paper. Bibliography entries are formatted differently from notes. For bibliography entries, you list the sources alphabetically by last name, so you will list the last name of the author or creator first in each entry. You should single-space within a bibliography entry and double-space between them. When an entry goes longer than one line, use a hanging indent of .5 inches for subsequent lines. Here’s a link to a sample bibliography that shows layout and spacing . You can find a sample of note format here .
Complete note vs. shortened note
Here’s an example of a complete note and a shortened version of a note for a book:
1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 27-35.
1. Karen Ho, Liquidated , 27-35.
Note vs. Bibliography entry
The bibliography entry that corresponds with each note is very similar to the longer version of the note, except that the author’s last and first name are reversed in the bibliography entry. To see differences between note and bibliography entries for different types of sources, check this section of the Chicago Manual of Style .
For Liquidated , the bibliography entry would look like this:
Ho, Karen, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.
Citing a source with two or three authors
If you are citing a source with two or three authors, list their names in your note in the order they appear in the original source. In the bibliography, invert only the name of the first author and use “and” before the last named author.
1. Melissa Borja and Jacob Gibson, “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees,” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 17, no. 3 (2019): 80-81, https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1643983 .
1. Borja and Gibson, “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics,” 80-81.
Borja, Melissa, and Jacob Gibson. “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 17. no. 3 (2019): 80–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1643983 .
Citing a source with more than three authors
If you are citing a source with more than three authors, include all of them in the bibliography, but only include the first one in the note, followed by et al. ( et al. is the shortened form of the Latin et alia , which means “and others”).
1. Justine M. Nagurney, et al., “Risk Factors for Disability After Emergency Department Discharge in Older Adults,” Academic Emergency Medicine 27, no. 12 (2020): 1271.
Short version of note:
1. Justine M. Nagurney, et al., “Risk Factors for Disability,” 1271.
Nagurney, Justine M., Ling Han, Linda Leo‐Summers, Heather G. Allore, Thomas M. Gill, and Ula Hwang. “Risk Factors for Disability After Emergency Department Discharge in Older Adults.” Academic Emergency Medicine 27, no. 12 (2020): 1270–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.14088 .
Citing a book consulted online
If you are citing a book you consulted online, you should include a URL, DOI, or the name of the database where you found the book.
1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 27-35, https://doi-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1215/9780822391371 .
Ho, Karen. Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. https://doi-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1215/9780822391371 .
Citing an e-book consulted outside of a database
If you are citing an e-book that you accessed outside of a database, you should indicate the format. If you read the book in a format without fixed page numbers (like Kindle, for example), you should not include the page numbers that you saw as you read. Instead, include chapter or section numbers, if possible.
1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), chap. 2, Kindle.
Ho, Karen. Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. Kindle.
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Consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.
- Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
- Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
- Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
- Book: What have reviews said about it?
- What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
- Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
- Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
- Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
- Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
- Are there ads?
- When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
- Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
- Does the source even have a date?
- Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
- If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
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Are you using a LaTex editor like Overleaf? If so, you can easily export your references in Bib(La)TeX format with a single click.
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- Finding sources
- Integrating sources
Tools and resources, a quick guide to working with sources.
Working with sources is an important skill that you’ll need throughout your academic career.
It includes knowing how to find relevant sources, assessing their authority and credibility, and understanding how to integrate sources into your work with proper referencing.
This quick guide will help you get started!
Finding relevant sources
Sources commonly used in academic writing include academic journals, scholarly books, websites, newspapers, and encyclopedias. There are three main places to look for such sources:
- Research databases: Databases can be general or subject-specific. To get started, check out this list of databases by academic discipline . Another good starting point is Google Scholar .
- Your institution’s library: Use your library’s database to narrow down your search using keywords to find relevant articles, books, and newspapers matching your topic.
- Other online resources: Consult popular online sources like websites, blogs, or Wikipedia to find background information. Be sure to carefully evaluate the credibility of those online sources.
When using academic databases or search engines, you can use Boolean operators to refine your results.
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In academic writing, your sources should be credible, up to date, and relevant to your research topic. Useful approaches to evaluating sources include the CRAAP test and lateral reading.
CRAAP is an abbreviation that reminds you of a set of questions to ask yourself when evaluating information.
- Currency: Does the source reflect recent research?
- Relevance: Is the source related to your research topic?
- Authority: Is it a respected publication? Is the author an expert in their field?
- Accuracy: Does the source support its arguments and conclusions with evidence?
- Purpose: What is the author’s intention?
Lateral reading means comparing your source to other sources. This allows you to:
- Verify evidence
- Contextualize information
- Find potential weaknesses
If a source is using methods or drawing conclusions that are incompatible with other research in its field, it may not be reliable.
Integrating sources into your work
Once you have found information that you want to include in your paper, signal phrases can help you to introduce it. Here are a few examples:
Following the signal phrase, you can choose to quote, paraphrase or summarize the source.
- Quoting : This means including the exact words of another source in your paper. The quoted text must be enclosed in quotation marks or (for longer quotes) presented as a block quote . Quote a source when the meaning is difficult to convey in different words or when you want to analyze the language itself.
- Paraphrasing : This means putting another person’s ideas into your own words. It allows you to integrate sources more smoothly into your text, maintaining a consistent voice. It also shows that you have understood the meaning of the source.
- Summarizing : This means giving an overview of the essential points of a source. Summaries should be much shorter than the original text. You should describe the key points in your own words and not quote from the original text.
Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source, you must include a citation crediting the original author.
Citing your sources is important because it:
- Allows you to avoid plagiarism
- Establishes the credentials of your sources
- Backs up your arguments with evidence
- Allows your reader to verify the legitimacy of your conclusions
The most common citation styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago style. Each citation style has specific rules for formatting citations.
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MyBib is a free bibliography and citation generator that makes accurate citations for you to copy straight into your academic assignments and papers.
If you're a student, academic, or teacher, and you're tired of the other bibliography and citation tools out there, then you're going to love MyBib. MyBib creates accurate citations automatically for books, journals, websites, and videos just by searching for a title or identifier (such as a URL or ISBN).
Plus, we're using the same citation formatting engine as professional-grade reference managers such as Zotero and Mendeley, so you can be sure our bibliographies are perfectly accurate in over 9,000 styles -- including APA 6 & 7, Chicago, Harvard, and MLA 7 & 8.
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If you're trying to determine what source to choose or what you should cite, read on for FAQs and helpful answers.
I'm citing a book, article, video, photo, etc., that I found online. Does that mean it's a "website"?
If you can classify your source as something other than a website/web page, choose that as your source. Be as specific as possible. Most times, the source citation form will give you the option to cite the source as something found online (see tabs at the top of the citation form).
- E-book -- choose "Book"
- Online newspaper article -- choose "Newspaper"
- Digital photo -- choose "Photo"
What's the difference between an "Online database" and a "Journal"?
In research, a journal is a scholarly or academic periodical featuring articles written by experts. These articles are reviewed by fellow experts (peer-reviewed) before being published.
An online database is an electronic collection of information. They are searchable and most databases found at your library provide credible, published content. Depending on the database, it might also let you access information in various formats (e.g., journals, videos, books, newspapers, etc.).
This means an online database could have several journals.
- Journals -- Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), PLOS One, New Scientist, Ecology Letters
- Online databases --- Academic One File, Britannica Academic, EBSCOHost, Facts on File
I'm still not sure what source I have. What should I do?
Scroll through our long list of source options and make your best educated guess. If you're still unsure, choose "Miscellaneous."
If there is no author, can I still cite a source?
Yes! It's always better to cite a source, even if you're unsure of all the source details. Also, not everything has an indicated author so it's ok to leave an author out in those cases. When this happens, most citation styles will list the source by its title instead of the author's last name.
I only need to cite one source, right?
A well-balanced paper usually cites several sources; often in different formats (e.g., books, journals, interviews, etc.). There isn't an exact number of sources that is ideal, but try to have more than a couple sources listed.
Also, you should cite everything you've consulted or mentioned in your paper. It's the ethical thing to do.
If I have a full citation at the end of my paper, do I really need to make in-text citations (e.g., parenthetical citations, footnotes, etc.)?
Yes, absolutely! Showing where you got certain ideas or points in your paper will help support any arguments you make. Including in-text citations is also ethical — give credit where it is due.
I heard that "common knowledge" does NOT need to be cited. What is it?
Common knowledge is general information that you can assume a normal individual would know without needing to consult a source. Yes, you do not necessarily need to cite common knowledge. However, if you are unsure if you should cite a fact or source, err on the side of caution and cite it.
- London is the capital of England
- A penguin is a bird
- The moon orbits the Earth
- Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius
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Zotero and Zotero Bib
In your time at Harvard, you'll hear more than one librarian suggest that you use Zotero, a "citation management tool." Zotero will be great for big projects that require you to keep track of many sources -- like junior tutorials and senior theses (if you end up writing one).
In the meantime, we recommend you generate citations with ZoteroBib .
It's more reliable than the internal HOLLIS citation generator and you don't need an account or special software to use it. Some of its handy features are described on this page .
Next semester, or next year, you might want to graduate into using Zotero itself. It will take the process of collecting and organizing sources and incorporating footnotes or in-text citations to the next level.
A good guide, if you're interested, is available here: https://guides.library.harvard.edu/zotero
Librarians offer Zotero classes multiple times each semester (including many virtual optons!). You can find a listing of options (this semester and going forward).
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Easybib® guides & resources, mla format guide.
This is the total package when it comes to MLA format. Our easy to read guides come complete with examples and step-by-step instructions to format your full and in-text citations, paper, and works cited in MLA style. There’s even information on annotated bibliographies.
Works Cited | In-Text Citations | Bibliography | Annotated Bibliography | Website | Book | Journal | YouTube | View all MLA Citation Examples
APA Format Guide
Get the facts on citing and writing in APA format with our comprehensive guides. Formatting instructions, in-text citation and reference examples, and sample papers provide you with the tools you need to style your paper in APA.
Reference Page | In-Text Citations | Annotated Bibliography | Website | Books | Journal | YouTube | View all APA citation Examples
Chicago Format Guide
Looking to format your paper in Chicago style and not sure where to start? Our guide provides everything you need! Learn the basics and fundamentals to creating references and footnotes in Chicago format. With numerous examples and visuals, you’ll be citing in Chicago style in no time.
Footnotes | Website | Book | Journal
Harvard Referencing Guide
Learn the requirements to properly reference your paper in Harvard style. The guides we have provide the basics and fundamentals to give credit to the sources used in your work.
In-Text Citations | Books | Article | YouTube | View all Harvard Referencing Examples
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Our Writing Center is jam-packed with tons of exciting resources. Videos, infographics, research guides, and many other citation-related resources are found here. Check it out to find what you need to succeed!
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Citing Your Sources
Chicago style, american psychological association (apa) style manuals, modern language association (mla) style manuals, selected web guides.
Proper citation is an essential aspect of scholarship. Citing properly allows your reader or audience to locate the materials you have used. Most importantly, citations give credit to the authors of quoted or consulted information. Failure to acknowledge sources of information properly may constitute plagiarism. For an explicit definition of plagiarism, see the Boston University Academic Conduct Code .
For detailed instructions on how to cite within the text of your paper, please consult a style manual listed below. Please also note: some of the resources below do not cover every possibility you might encounter when trying to cite your sources. For this reason, it is suggested that you consult a style manual to create your bibliography.
- Online Resources
- Sample Citations
- Reference Books
- Chicago Manual of Style Online This link opens in a new window Note: Full text online includes 16th and 17th editions.
- Citation Quick Guide - A Chicago Style Q&A and a Tools section featuring sample forms, letters and style sheets. - Discover the difference between Notes & Bibliography style and Author/Date style.
- Citation Guide (HBS) This excellent guide in .PDF from the Harvard Business School covers citation within text as well as how to do a bibliography using Chicago style.
1. Lynda Gratton, The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World’s Toughest Problems (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014), 67-71.
10. Gratton, The Key , 67-71.
Gratton, Lynda. The Key: How How Corporations Succeed by Solving the Toughest Problems . New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014.
13. Peter Weill and Stephanie L. Woerner, What's Your Digital Business Model?: Six Questions to Help You Build the Next-Generation Enterprise (Harvard Business Review Press, 2018), 21-23, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/bu /detail.action?docID=5180058.
Shortened note :
15. Weill and Woerner, What's Your Digital Business? , 21-23, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/bu /detail.action?docID=5180058.
Weill, Peter and Stephanie L. Woerrner. What's Your Digital Business?: Six Questions to Help You Build the Next-Generation
Enterprise . Harvard Business Review Press 2018. ProQuest Ebook Central ,
Journal Article from a database
19. Sam son Nambei Asoba and Nteboheng Patricia Mefi , "Functional Strategies for Small Businesses During Crisis Situations," Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 27, n o. 3 (2021): 2-3. https://ezproxy.bu.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Ffunctional-strategies-small-businesses-during%2Fdocview%2F2565213471%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D9676.
27. Asoba and Mefi, "Functional Stategies," Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 27, 2-3. https://ezproxy.bu.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Ffunctional-strategies-small-businesses-during%2Fdocview%2F2565213471%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D9676
Asoba, Samson Nambei and Nteboheng Patricia Mefi. "Functional Strategies for Small Businesses During Crisis
Situations." Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 27, no. 3 (2021): 1-7. [place url here].
Electronic Databases (BU Databases)
Mergent Online (Electronic database)
25. Thomas Key, "Comprehensive Technical and Fundamental Analysis for AAPL," Mergent Online, Stock Trader's Daily (via Investext), Sept. 15, 2021, accessed 9-17-21, [place url here].
Key, Thomas. "Comprehensive Technical and Fundamental Analysis for AAPL." Mergent Online.
Stock Trader's Daily (via Investext). Sept. 15, 2021, accessed 9-17-21, [place url here].
MarketLine Company Profile via Business Source Complete (Electronic database)
31 . “Company Profile: Apple Inc., “Company Profile: Apple Inc.,” MarketLine Report via Business Source Complete, accessed October 17, 2014, [place url here].
“Company Profile: Apple Inc., 19 September 2014.” MarketLine Report via Business Source Complete.
Accessed October 17, 2014. [place url here].
- APA Style.Style and Grammar Guidelines
APA Sample Citations: Note- initially no indent and then following lines indented.
Gratton, L. (2014). The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World’s Toughest Problems . New York: McGraw-Hill Education .
Bloomberg (Electronic Database):
Bloomberg L.P. (2014). Historical Price Line Chart for Apple, Inc. 11/1/03 to 11/1/04 . Retrieved October 17, 2014 from Bloomberg L.P.
MarketLine Company Profile via Business Source Complete:
MarketLine Report. (2014, September 19). Company Profile: Apple Inc . Retrieved October 17, 2014 from Business Source Complete database.
Mergent Online (SEC/EDGAR filing in BU database):
Apple, Inc. (2013, September 28). Form 10-K . Retrieved October 17, 2014 from Mergent Online database.
Mintel Reports (Electronic Database):
Mintel. (2014, October). Mobile Apps – US – October 2014 . Retrieved October 17, 2014 from Mintel Reports database.
SRDS online (Electronic Database)
SRDS Media Solutions. (n.d.). U.S. News & World Report Profile . Retrieved October 17, 2014 from SRDS Media Solutions database.
University Reporter (Electronic Database):
University Reporter . (2014, Spring). 2014 Spring Reporter Apparel/Accessories . Retrieved February 23, 2016 from University Reporter database.
Articles from a BU Database:
Overman, S. (2014). The Culture of Conscience. Leadership Excellence , 31 (10) , 49-51.
Annual report available online:.
Apple Inc.(2013). Apple, Inc. Form 10-K for the Fiscal Year Ended September 28, 2013 . Retrieved from http://investor.apple.com/financials.cfm.
- Ask the MLA The FAQ’s answer recurring questions about the use of this style.
MLA Sample Citations: Note- initially no indent and then following lines indented.
Gratton, Lynda. The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World’s Toughest Problems . New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. Print.
Electronic Databases (BU Databases):
Bloomberg (electronic database): bloomberg l.p..
Bloomberg L.P. “ Historical Price Line Chart for Apple, Inc. 11/1/03 to 11/1/04." Bloomberg L.P. ,2014. Web. 17 October 2014.
MarketLine Report. “ Company Profile: Apple Inc. ” Business Source Complete database, 19 September 2014. Web. 17 October 2014.
Apple, Inc. “ Form 10-K," Mergent Online database . 28 September 2013. Web. 17 October 2014.
Mintel (Electronic Database):
Mintel. “ Mobile Apps – US ." Mintel database, October 2014. Web. 17 October 2014.
SRDS Online (Electronic Database):
SRDS Media Solutions. “U.S. News & World Report Profile." SRDS Media Solutions, n.d. Web. 17 October 2014.
University Reporter . 2014 Spring Reporter Apparel/Accessories . Web. February 23, 2016.
Article from a BU database
Overman, Steven. “The Culture of Conscience." Leadership Excellence 31.10 (2014): 49-51. ABI-Inform Complete. Web. 17 October 2014.
Apple Inc. Apple, Inc. Form 10-K for the Fiscal Year Ended September 28, 2013 . Apple Inc., 28 September 2013. Web. 17 October 2014.
- Citing Your Sources This Boston University research guide offers links to information about citing sources.
- Citing Sources Within Your Paper (Duke University) Duke University is responsible for this well-organized site about citing in the body of your text.
- Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University provides examples of APA, MLA and Chicago Style citations as well as formatting instructions from the style manuals.
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Harvard Referencing Style: A Comprehensive Guide
First and foremost, cite in Harvard style is a specially designed guide for students, faculty, and authors to help you properly cite and reference. The up-to-date instructions will help you adhere to the overall style of academic work and highlight sources as correctly as possible. In the review, we tell you about all the features and unique features of Harvard style citations.
Table of Contents:
1.What is Harvard Citation Style? 2.Creating a Reference List: The Core of Harvard Referencing 3.Formatting Your Harvard References: Books, Journals, and More 4.Harvard Referencing for Online Sources: Websites and Electronic Materials 5.Citing Images, Videos, and Multimedia in Harvard Style 6.The Harvard Style for Newspaper and Magazine Articles 7.Mastering Harvard Referencing for Reports and Theses 8.Legal Citations in Harvard Style: Citing Cases and Legislation 9.Tips for Consistency and Accuracy in Harvard Referencing 10.Common Harvard Referencing Mistakes to Avoid
What is Harvard Citation Style?
The most proper citation Harvard style to use in scientific and academic articles, research papers , or other papers. For over 100 years, everyone has joined the common culture of writing scientific papers and using a carefully developed style. The main advantage remains maximum clarity and sophistication so that any research paper reader can quickly find the necessary sources.
Also, the style over time has not been practically corrected and therefore used in its original form and now. However, the scientists considered almost all situations during the development, which allowed the style to gain maximum popularity. Modern Harvard referencing styles are stable designs that will be clear from the first second.
In general, the style is highly regarded among scholars and academics for its simple formatting rules, allowing you to quickly identify at a glance the type of source and the information you have taken. You can often use online tools to put up simple citations, but complex variants will require your intervention. In this regard, you can trust professional Bid4Papers writers who are ready to cite correctly and create an original research paper from scratch.
Creating a Reference List: The Core of Harvard Referencing
Most often Harvard style of references you need to learn how to use it correctly before you start formatting your research paper. More often than not, you must use classic instructions that will help you choose the right document parameters and not forget brackets. Here are some important arguments in favor of the fact that you should take care of reliable citation and formatting:
- you can easily prove to your readers that you are not plagiarizing through references. It allows you to see the different primary sources and the process you went through to arrive at a particular idea;
- the original reference style Harvard allows readers to determine how accurate the information you provide in your research papers is. With the right references, your teacher or audience can see the research you have already done;
- at this point, the Harvard style for references says a lot about you when you use it. Proper formatting will immediately make any academic realize that you know the standard and adhere to accepted norms.
All this allows you to be categorized at least initially as a credible author who can be believed. It also shows how well you have prepared for your report, lecture, or just handing in your term paper. The main thing right away is not to use online systems for automatic citation because it will likely lead to you never learning how to put them on your own. Try to understand the simple rules so that you can apply them to any work in the future without any problems.
Among other things, the popularity of the Harvard referencing style is also due to the system’s flexibility. This allows different books, journals, or web sources to have the same academic style but with different adjustments. All this is done to ensure that the reading experience is not compromised, regardless of the source.
Formatting Your Harvard References: Books, Journals, and More
Journal or book style formatting is quite simple. You can specify the volume and issue number instead of the publication date. This allows you to create the correct formatting more quickly and not focus on it. Also, the URL address is usually specified only if the magazine or book cannot be read in other formats. The order is classic, first comes the author’s last name and initials, followed by the year of issue, title of the article, volume and issue, or month or season of issue. Also include URL access if the print version of the journal does not.
Most often, a book will look like the following: Book by two authors, Collie C. and Jones, R. (2013). How to quit smoking for good. Paragraph edition.
Harvard Referencing for Online Sources: Websites and Electronic Materials
The main peculiarity is the uniformity of such design. In general, citing in text Harvard style is easy for such references because you need to know a few rules:
- foremost, the title of the article is indicated most often in quotation marks;
- the title of the publication in italics, followed by the date of publication;
- the sequence is quite simple. First comes the author’s last name, even initials, year of writing, article title and blog name, day, month, and address, also indicate access by day, month, and year.
All this is simple and easy to understand, even for someone who will do citations for the first time. The main thing is to pay attention to the different Harvard style references examples to orient yourself faster.
Citing Images, Videos, and Multimedia in Harvard Style
Also, Harvard citation style in text can easily be applied to special pictures or videos, depending on your needs. Here, it all depends on how exactly the video was uploaded. You can specify a similar citation with a regular web page if it is a regular platform like YouTube or Instagram. At the same time, if the publication was in the name of an individual, then you need to provide the author’s name. If the real name information is unknown, you can specify the user’s nickname on the platform. You can also specify a specific period if the information you need is only in a part of the video.
The Harvard Style for Newspaper and Magazine Articles
In this case, the relaxations are even greater, but you need to recognize the volume and issue number. You can also use other designations the publication uses to number its issues. Otherwise, the citations will be similar to those we gave for book type. Don’t forget to include the URL if the material is only available online.
Mastering Harvard Referencing for Reports and Theses
The Harvard format style makes it fairly easy to cite citations and sources. Two variants of the rules should be followed:
- in case the material is available on the Internet. It is necessary to indicate the author, year, title, type of work, and, after that, the university with the date of viewing and the address for viewing;
- in case of citation of a physical publication. In this case, it is sufficient to indicate the author, year, title, type of work, and university.
Also, “online” is often not used after the job title. It is quite simple and may seem complicated to you only if you haven’t figured it out. Each type of work in the Harvard methodology has a different citation option.
Legal Citations in Harvard Style: Citing Cases and Legislation
There is nothing complicated about such a citation because the style is initially clear and concise. It will be necessary to cite first the name of the party against the other party (for example, Smith v. Janet), followed by the year, the name of the court, and the case number. Next, cite the database or website where your cited information can be accessed. Also, provide URL access with day, month, and year.
Tips for Consistency and Accuracy in Harvard Referencing
Use the citation generator Harvard style, figure out the topic independently and apply proper formatting. Overall, the most important thing is to follow the simple instructions that you always have on hand. Here are a few of the most important steps:
- You need first to understand the basics and rules of style. By doing so, you can utilize all the rules much more effectively. You must cite your sources in full, including the author’s name, the year of publication, and the quote itself.
- Next, try to get all of your sources together. Thanks to this, you can effectively organize all your information about this or that article, book, or video into columns. It will already be easier to work with this in the future.
- Try to create quotations in the text. Do this is not too false because you need to find and designate fragments of the text that were written not by you or from someone else’s words and ideas. The easiest thing to do is to arrange quotation marks formatting, and don’t forget about the phrase at the end with the author and year.
- Create a complete list of references to find information about a particular source anytime. You must put the author’s last and first names at the top of the reference. You should also consider that in the quote itself, only the first word and proper names are capitalized.
An excellent example of Harvard style referencing differs from a bad one by having proper formatting, a mandatory element for any academic paper. Academic rules must be followed in full to get impressive and correct results. The easiest thing to do is to use the following guidelines that will help you understand everything:
- use standard Times New Roman or Arial fonts with a size of 12, which is the standard for academic papers. You should also set 1-inch margins on all sides of the page;
- use double spacing throughout the document. This rule applies to the reference list, which students sometimes forget to do;
- it is best to set a heading including the title of the material and page number on each sheet. They are usually located in the upper right corner;
- you must have a title page with the author, article title, university, and date of submission of the work. It is also recommended to take care of a detailed and, at the same time, understandable title of the research paper;
- at the same time, Harvard formatting style suggests using headings throughout the article, which will be separately bolded or even italicized. This is done so that any reader can find the necessary fragment in your voluminous scientific work;
- include citations and a list of references, which should be located at the very end of the material.
You can expect a positive grade from your teacher by fulfilling all the requirements. Bid4Papers authors can easily help you with proper referencing and fulfill all the formatting requirements of the paper. Thanks to this, you can prepare your research paper and hand it in much faster. Original text and full compliance with all additional instructions of the student are also ensured.
Common Harvard Referencing Mistakes to Avoid
The Harvard style format is not too difficult but needs to be taught. Many students initially make some common mistakes that end up reducing the grade of the paper. There are a few of the most well-known pitfalls that you should learn about even before writing a paper :
- incorrect formatting of references. Extreme care should be taken with each type of formatting for all sources. Italics are for book titles, and quotation marks are for standard materials and articles. Such small rules will help to determine at a glance the type of source, and it is impossible to mix them;
- forget about page numbers. It is important to indicate when referring to the source, including the page number, because it makes it much more difficult to find the necessary information. You may even lose points without a number because the source may not be credited. We recommend double-checking such small points at the stage of editing and proofreading the research material;
- formatting and citation styles are not consistent. Students should often use one style in the scientific material, including the reference list. Mixing different formatting styles can confuse the audience and the instructor. Therefore, it is important to ensure the work is consistent throughout.
The most common problem is ignoring the Harvard style guide and using only the online tool for proper citations and references. In this case, you cannot correct your work or change any data in time. Such tools can be useful for simple citation options. Still, if you do not understand all the peculiarities of formatting yourself, the system will not be able to cite correctly.
In conclusion, the Harvard reference style example is an excellent opportunity to make your work more understandable and clear for readers. You can correctly identify all the distinctive elements of a scientific work and organize the list of references and citations. This helps teachers and audiences learn more about your chosen topic .
You should start studying the topic now and establish your first proper references, or trust Bid4Papers experts. Professional writers can correctly fulfill all the received instructions and requirements and achieve maximum originality in the work. In any case, we wish you good luck already now!
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Cornell University student threatened to stab and rape Jewish students and ‘shoot up’ school, prosecutors say
A 21-year-old Cornell University junior was charged Tuesday for making online threats to Jewish students at the Ivy League school, authorities said.
Patrick Dai, a junior at Cornell, faces a charge of posting threats to kill or injure another using interstate communications, federal prosecutors in the Northern District of New York said.
In a post in an online discussion board, prosecutors said, the student allegedly threatened to "shoot up" a campus building. In another post, he said he would "stab" or "slit the throat" of Jewish men, and rape or throw off a cliff Jewish women he encounters on campus, according to the prosecutors.
He also said he would behead Jewish babies and threatened to "bring an assault rifle to campus and shoot all you" Jewish people, prosecutors said, attributing the words to Dai.
He was slated to make an initial appearance in Syracuse federal court Wednesday, prosecutors said. If convicted he would face a maximum of 5 years in prison and a $250,000 fine.
It was not clear if Dai has retained legal counsel. The Office of the Federal Public Defender for the Northern District of New York did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
The federal complaint filed against Dai states he admitted to making the threats. "Dai admitted, after receiving Miranda warnings, that he was the person who used the internet to post the threatening messages described above," the complaint, citing an interview of the suspect by the FBI earlier in the day, said.
Investigators said they traced threatening communication to the suspect's Internet Protocol or IP address, a number unique to a device or network connected to the internet.
Earlier Tuesday Cornell officials confirmed that a person who made antisemitic threats against Jewish students at the Ivy League school over the weekend had been identified and taken into custody.
“Cornell University is grateful to the FBI for working so swiftly to identify and apprehend the suspect in this case, a Cornell student, who remains in custody," Joel M. Malina, Cornell's vice president for university relations said in a statement Tuesday night.
He continued, "We remain shocked by and condemn these horrific, antisemitic threats and believe they should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law."
The threats alarmed students on the university's campus in Ithaca, New York, and put more national attention on the reported rise in antisemitism in the U.S. since the start of the war between Israel and Hamas militants in the Gaza Strip.
The Anti-Defamation League said last Tuesday that preliminary data shows a nearly 400% increase in reported incidents of antisemitic harassment, vandalism and assault since Hamas terrorists stormed into Israel on Oct. 7, killing more than 1,400 people.
In testimony during a Senate hearing Tuesday, FBI Director Christopher Wray said antisemitic threats in the U.S. are reaching "historic levels," with the Jewish community "targeted by terrorists really across the spectrum," from "homegrown violent extremists" to "foreign terrorist organizations."
The conflict between Israel and Hamas has likewise stoked fears of Islamophobia spreading across the U.S. and other Western countries.
The Council on American-Islamic Relations said last Wednesday that it has recorded nearly 800 complaints and reported bias incidents from Muslims nationwide since Oct. 7.
The organization went on to say that the "actual numbers may be higher, as hate crimes against Muslims in America remain massively underreported."
The threats at Cornell, which the university's president said had specifically named the school's Center for Jewish Living, came after weeks of heated protests and demonstrations over the war at colleges across the country.
In interviews, college students have described an increase in tensions on campus, and in some cases university administrators have been forced to intervene.
Syracuse University, for example, announced earlier Tuesday that an event featuring a “teach-in” lecture from a Middle Eastern studies scholar would be canceled after a faculty member contacted the school with “safety concerns.”
“Syracuse University is not able to confidently ensure the safety of the attendees, the speaker and our whole campus community and, thus, has made the decision that this event will not occur as scheduled today,” the school’s chancellor and president said in a message to the community Tuesday afternoon.
In recent days, images and videos circulating on social media have intensified concerns about other antisemitic threats around college campuses.
In one video uploaded to X, a partially masked man in Harvard Square, near Harvard University, claims he had been ripping down flyers with the faces of people taken hostage by Hamas terrorists and says Jewish people should be "exterminated."
In a statement Tuesday, a Harvard University spokesperson said the incident happened on a city sidewalk in Cambridge and the local police department was "looking into it," adding that the school's police department was "supporting ... as needed."
The university spokesperson said there was "no indication" that the masked man in the video is "a Harvard student or community member."
Daniel Arkin is a national reporter at NBC News.
Tom Winter is a New York-based correspondent covering crime, courts, terrorism and financial fraud on the East Coast for the NBC News Investigative Unit.
Dennis Romero is a breaking news reporter for NBC News Digital.
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USM Master of Public Health Online Program Earns National Ranking
Tue, 10/31/2023 - 07:36am | By: Van Arnold
The University of Southern Mississippi’s (USM) Master of Public Health online program has been rated among the nation’s best in rankings released by education resource guide Edumed.org. USM is the only Mississippi college or university ranked among the top-50 in the Best Online MPH Programs for 2024.
“This type of recognition goes to the heart of public health at USM,” said Dr. Vickie Reed, Assistant Director, Public Health and MPH Graduate Coordinator. “We have great students and faculty, and this recognition honors their academic, research, and service contributions to our public health discipline and profession.”
USM’s Master of Public Health Program provides students with academic skills, practical experience and multidisciplinary study that will enable them to meet 21st century public health challenges. Public Health is a science protecting and improving the health of communities. This work is achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, and detecting, preventing and responding to both chronic and infectious diseases.
Public health practitioners promote healthcare equity, quality and accessibility while working to decrease health disparities. USM’s Master of Public Health degree is accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH). CEPH is the national accrediting body for programs in Public Health.
There are currently 111 students enrolled in USM’s MPH Program, with 65 enrolled in the online program. The online program consists of two emphasis areas – Health Policy & Administration and Health Promotion Health Behavior. Ninety-six students graduated from the MPH program during the 2022-23 academic year.
Reed takes particular pride in USM’s program being the only Mississippi college or university included in the rankings.
“Yes, this is great news for the oldest accredited public health program in Mississippi,” said Reed. “Not only is the MPH Program accredited, as most CEPH-accredited program are, but our undergraduate program is also CEPH-accredited.”
To see the complete rankings, visit: Best Online MPH Programs for 2024
To learn more about USM’s MPH Program , call 601.266.5957.
Categories: Nursing and Health Professions
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