What Is a Case Study?
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.
At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.
As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.
Study a Pattern
One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.
During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.
As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.
Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.
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What Is a Case Study?
An in-depth study of one person, group, or event
Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.
Verywell / Colleen Tighe
Benefits and Limitations
Types of case studies, how to write a case study.
A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in various fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.
The purpose of a case study is to learn as much as possible about an individual or group so that the information can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective, and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.
While case studies focus on a single individual or group, they follow a format similar to other types of psychology writing. If you are writing a case study, it is important to follow the rules of APA format .
A case study can have both strengths and weaknesses. Researchers must consider these pros and cons before deciding if this type of study is appropriate for their needs.
One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult to impossible to replicate in a lab. Some other benefits of a case study:
- Allows researchers to collect a great deal of information
- Give researchers the chance to collect information on rare or unusual cases
- Permits researchers to develop hypotheses that can be explored in experimental research
On the negative side, a case study:
- Cannot necessarily be generalized to the larger population
- Cannot demonstrate cause and effect
- May not be scientifically rigorous
- Can lead to bias
Researchers may choose to perform a case study if they are interested in exploring a unique or recently discovered phenomenon. The insights gained from such research can help the researchers develop additional ideas and study questions that might be explored in future studies.
However, it is important to remember that the insights gained from case studies cannot be used to determine cause and effect relationships between variables. However, case studies may be used to develop hypotheses that can then be addressed in experimental research.
Case Study Examples
There have been a number of notable case studies in the history of psychology. Much of Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include:
- Anna O : Anna O. was a pseudonym of a woman named Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of a physician named Josef Breuer. While she was never a patient of Freud's, Freud and Breuer discussed her case extensively. The woman was experiencing symptoms of a condition that was then known as hysteria and found that talking about her problems helped relieve her symptoms. Her case played an important part in the development of talk therapy as an approach to mental health treatment.
- Phineas Gage : Phineas Gage was a railroad employee who experienced a terrible accident in which an explosion sent a metal rod through his skull, damaging important portions of his brain. Gage recovered from his accident but was left with serious changes in both personality and behavior.
- Genie : Genie was a young girl subjected to horrific abuse and isolation. The case study of Genie allowed researchers to study whether language could be taught even after critical periods for language development had been missed. Her case also served as an example of how scientific research may interfere with treatment and lead to further abuse of vulnerable individuals.
Such cases demonstrate how case research can be used to study things that researchers could not replicate in experimental settings. In Genie's case, her horrific abuse had denied her the opportunity to learn language at critical points in her development.
This is clearly not something that researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers the chance to study phenomena that are otherwise impossible to reproduce.
There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might utilize:
- Collective case studies : These involve studying a group of individuals. Researchers might study a group of people in a certain setting or look at an entire community. For example, psychologists might explore how access to resources in a community has affected the collective mental well-being of those living there.
- Descriptive case studies : These involve starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed, and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
- Explanatory case studies : These are often used to do causal investigations. In other words, researchers are interested in looking at factors that may have caused certain things to occur.
- Exploratory case studies : These are sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses .
- Instrumental case studies : These occur when the individual or group allows researchers to understand more than what is initially obvious to observers.
- Intrinsic case studies : This type of case study is when the researcher has a personal interest in the case. Jean Piaget's observations of his own children are good examples of how an intrinsic cast study can contribute to the development of a psychological theory.
The three main case study types often used are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. Intrinsic case studies are useful for learning about unique cases. Instrumental case studies help look at an individual to learn more about a broader issue. A collective case study can be useful for looking at several cases simultaneously.
The type of case study that psychology researchers utilize depends on the unique characteristics of the situation as well as the case itself.
There are also different methods that can be used to conduct a case study, including prospective and retrospective case study methods.
Prospective case study methods are those in which an individual or group of people is observed in order to determine outcomes. For example, a group of individuals might be watched over an extended period of time to observe the progression of a particular disease.
Retrospective case study methods involve looking at historical information. For example, researchers might start with an outcome, such as a disease, and then work their way backward to look at information about the individual's life to determine risk factors that may have contributed to the onset of the illness.
Where to Find Data
There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. Six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:
- Archival records : Census records, survey records, and name lists are examples of archival records.
- Direct observation : This strategy involves observing the subject, often in a natural setting . While an individual observer is sometimes used, it is more common to utilize a group of observers.
- Documents : Letters, newspaper articles, administrative records, etc., are the types of documents often used as sources.
- Interviews : Interviews are one of the most important methods for gathering information in case studies. An interview can involve structured survey questions or more open-ended questions.
- Participant observation : When the researcher serves as a participant in events and observes the actions and outcomes, it is called participant observation.
- Physical artifacts : Tools, objects, instruments, and other artifacts are often observed during a direct observation of the subject.
Section 1: A Case History
This section will have the following structure and content:
Background information : The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.
Description of the presenting problem : In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.
Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.
Your diagnosis : Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the client's symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.
Section 2: Treatment Plan
This portion of the paper will address the chosen treatment for the condition. This might also include the theoretical basis for the chosen treatment or any other evidence that might exist to support why this approach was chosen.
- Cognitive behavioral approach : Explain how a cognitive behavioral therapist would approach treatment. Offer background information on cognitive behavioral therapy and describe the treatment sessions, client response, and outcome of this type of treatment. Make note of any difficulties or successes encountered by your client during treatment.
- Humanistic approach : Describe a humanistic approach that could be used to treat your client, such as client-centered therapy . Provide information on the type of treatment you chose, the client's reaction to the treatment, and the end result of this approach. Explain why the treatment was successful or unsuccessful.
- Psychoanalytic approach : Describe how a psychoanalytic therapist would view the client's problem. Provide some background on the psychoanalytic approach and cite relevant references. Explain how psychoanalytic therapy would be used to treat the client, how the client would respond to therapy, and the effectiveness of this treatment approach.
- Pharmacological approach : If treatment primarily involves the use of medications, explain which medications were used and why. Provide background on the effectiveness of these medications and how monotherapy may compare with an approach that combines medications with therapy or other treatments.
This section of a case study should also include information about the treatment goals, process, and outcomes.
When you are writing a case study, you should also include a section where you discuss the case study itself, including the strengths and limitiations of the study. You should note how the findings of your case study might support previous research.
In your discussion section, you should also describe some of the implications of your case study. What ideas or findings might require further exploration? How might researchers go about exploring some of these questions in additional studies?
Here are a few additional pointers to keep in mind when formatting your case study:
- Never refer to the subject of your case study as "the client." Instead, their name or a pseudonym.
- Read examples of case studies to gain an idea about the style and format.
- Remember to use APA format when citing references .
A Word From Verywell
Case studies can be a useful research tool, but they need to be used wisely. In many cases, they are best utilized in situations where conducting an experiment would be difficult or impossible. They are helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a great deal of information about a specific individual or group of people.
If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines that you are required to follow. If you are writing your case study for professional publication, be sure to check with the publisher for their specific guidelines for submitting a case study.
Simply Psychology. Case Study Method .
Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach . BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011 Jun 27;11:100. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-100
Gagnon, Yves-Chantal. The Case Study as Research Method: A Practical Handbook . Canada, Chicago Review Press Incorporated DBA Independent Pub Group, 2010.
Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . United States, SAGE Publications, 2017.
By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
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How to write a case study — examples, templates, and tools
It’s a marketer’s job to communicate the effectiveness of a product or service to potential and current customers to convince them to buy and keep business moving. One of the best methods for doing this is to share success stories that are relatable to prospects and customers based on their pain points, experiences, and overall needs.
That’s where case studies come in. Case studies are an essential part of a content marketing plan. These in-depth stories of customer experiences are some of the most effective at demonstrating the value of a product or service. Yet many marketers don’t use them, whether because of their regimented formats or the process of customer involvement and approval.
A case study is a powerful tool for showcasing your hard work and the success your customer achieved. But writing a great case study can be difficult if you’ve never done it before or if it’s been a while. This guide will show you how to write an effective case study and provide real-world examples and templates that will keep readers engaged and support your business.
In this article, you’ll learn:
What is a case study?
How to write a case study, case study templates, case study examples, case study tools.
A case study is the detailed story of a customer’s experience with a product or service that demonstrates their success and often includes measurable outcomes. Case studies are used in a range of fields and for various reasons, from business to academic research. They’re especially impactful in marketing as brands work to convince and convert consumers with relatable, real-world stories of actual customer experiences.
The best case studies tell the story of a customer’s success, including the steps they took, the results they achieved, and the support they received from a brand along the way. To write a great case study, you need to:
- Celebrate the customer and make them — not a product or service — the star of the story.
- Craft the story with specific audiences or target segments in mind so that the story of one customer will be viewed as relatable and actionable for another customer.
- Write copy that is easy to read and engaging so that readers will gain the insights and messages intended.
- Follow a standardized format that includes all of the essentials a potential customer would find interesting and useful.
- Support all of the claims for success made in the story with data in the forms of hard numbers and customer statements.
Case studies are a type of review but more in depth, aiming to show — rather than just tell — the positive experiences that customers have with a brand. Notably, 89% of consumers read reviews before deciding to buy, and 79% view case study content as part of their purchasing process. When it comes to B2B sales, 52% of buyers rank case studies as an important part of their evaluation process.
Telling a brand story through the experience of a tried-and-true customer matters. The story is relatable to potential new customers as they imagine themselves in the shoes of the company or individual featured in the case study. Showcasing previous customers can help new ones see themselves engaging with your brand in the ways that are most meaningful to them.
Besides sharing the perspective of another customer, case studies stand out from other content marketing forms because they are based on evidence. Whether pulling from client testimonials or data-driven results, case studies tend to have more impact on new business because the story contains information that is both objective (data) and subjective (customer experience) — and the brand doesn’t sound too self-promotional.
Case studies are unique in that there’s a fairly standardized format for telling a customer’s story. But that doesn’t mean there isn’t room for creativity. It’s all about making sure that teams are clear on the goals for the case study — along with strategies for supporting content and channels — and understanding how the story fits within the framework of the company’s overall marketing goals.
Here are the basic steps to writing a good case study.
1. Identify your goal
Start by defining exactly who your case study will be designed to help. Case studies are about specific instances where a company works with a customer to achieve a goal. Identify which customers are likely to have these goals, as well as other needs the story should cover to appeal to them.
The answer is often found in one of the buyer personas that have been constructed as part of your larger marketing strategy. This can include anything from new leads generated by the marketing team to long-term customers that are being pressed for cross-sell opportunities. In all of these cases, demonstrating value through a relatable customer success story can be part of the solution to conversion.
2. Choose your client or subject
Who you highlight matters. Case studies tie brands together that might otherwise not cross paths. A writer will want to ensure that the highlighted customer aligns with their own company’s brand identity and offerings. Look for a customer with positive name recognition who has had great success with a product or service and is willing to be an advocate.
The client should also match up with the identified target audience. Whichever company or individual is selected should be a reflection of other potential customers who can see themselves in similar circumstances, having the same problems and possible solutions.
Some of the most compelling case studies feature customers who:
- Switch from one product or service to another while naming competitors that missed the mark.
- Experience measurable results that are relatable to others in a specific industry.
- Represent well-known brands and recognizable names that are likely to compel action.
- Advocate for a product or service as a champion and are well-versed in its advantages.
Whoever or whatever customer is selected, marketers must ensure they have the permission of the company involved before getting started. Some brands have strict review and approval procedures for any official marketing or promotional materials that include their name. Acquiring those approvals in advance will prevent any miscommunication or wasted effort if there is an issue with their legal or compliance teams.
3. Conduct research and compile data
Substantiating the claims made in a case study — either by the marketing team or customers themselves — adds validity to the story. To do this, include data and feedback from the client that defines what success looks like. This can be anything from demonstrating return on investment (ROI) to a specific metric the customer was striving to improve. Case studies should prove how an outcome was achieved and show tangible results that indicate to the customer that your solution is the right one.
This step could also include customer interviews. Make sure that the people being interviewed are key stakeholders in the purchase decision or deployment and use of the product or service that is being highlighted. Content writers should work off a set list of questions prepared in advance. It can be helpful to share these with the interviewees beforehand so they have time to consider and craft their responses. One of the best interview tactics to keep in mind is to ask questions where yes and no are not natural answers. This way, your subject will provide more open-ended responses that produce more meaningful content.
Whether pulling from client testimonials or data-driven results, case studies tend to have more impact on new business because the story contains information that is both objective (data) and subjective (customer experience) — and the brand doesn’t sound too self-promotional.
4. Choose the right format
There are a number of different ways to format a case study. Depending on what you hope to achieve, one style will be better than another. However, there are some common elements to include, such as:
- An engaging headline
- A subject and customer introduction
- The unique challenge or challenges the customer faced
- The solution the customer used to solve the problem
- The results achieved
- Data and statistics to back up claims of success
- A strong call to action (CTA) to engage with the vendor
It’s also important to note that while case studies are traditionally written as stories, they don’t have to be in a written format. Some companies choose to get more creative with their case studies and produce multimedia content, depending on their audience and objectives. Case study formats can include traditional print stories, interactive web or social content, data-heavy infographics, professionally shot videos, podcasts, and more.
5. Write your case study
We’ll go into more detail later about how exactly to write a case study, including templates and examples. Generally speaking, though, there are a few things to keep in mind when writing your case study.
- Be clear and concise. Readers want to get to the point of the story quickly and easily, and they’ll be looking to see themselves reflected in the story right from the start.
- Provide a big picture. Always make sure to explain who the client is, their goals, and how they achieved success in a short introduction to engage the reader.
- Construct a clear narrative. Stick to the story from the perspective of the customer and what they needed to solve instead of just listing product features or benefits.
- Leverage graphics. Incorporating infographics, charts, and sidebars can be a more engaging and eye-catching way to share key statistics and data in readable ways.
- Offer the right amount of detail. Most case studies are one or two pages with clear sections that a reader can skim to find the information most important to them.
- Include data to support claims. Show real results — both facts and figures and customer quotes — to demonstrate credibility and prove the solution works.
6. Promote your story
Marketers have a number of options for distribution of a freshly minted case study. Many brands choose to publish case studies on their website and post them on social media. This can help support SEO and organic content strategies while also boosting company credibility and trust as visitors see that other businesses have used the product or service.
Marketers are always looking for quality content they can use for lead generation. Consider offering a case study as gated content behind a form on a landing page or as an offer in an email message. One great way to do this is to summarize the content and tease the full story available for download after the user takes an action.
Sales teams can also leverage case studies, so be sure they are aware that the assets exist once they’re published. Especially when it comes to larger B2B sales, companies often ask for examples of similar customer challenges that have been solved.
Case studies are a vital tool for any marketing team as they enable you to demonstrate the value of your company’s products and services to others.
Now that you’ve learned a bit about case studies and what they should include, you may be wondering how to start creating great customer story content. Here are a couple of templates you can use to structure your case study.
Template 1 — Challenge-solution-result format
- Start with an engaging title. This should be fewer than 70 characters long for SEO best practices. One of the best ways to approach the title is to include the customer’s name and a hint at the challenge they overcame in the end.
- Create an introduction. Lead with an explanation as to who the customer is, the need they had, and the opportunity they found with a specific product or solution. Writers can also suggest the success the customer experienced with the solution they chose.
- Present the challenge. This should be several paragraphs long and explain the problem the customer faced and the issues they were trying to solve. Details should tie into the company’s products and services naturally. This section needs to be the most relatable to the reader so they can picture themselves in a similar situation.
- Share the solution. Explain which product or service offered was the ideal fit for the customer and why. Feel free to delve into their experience setting up, purchasing, and onboarding the solution.
- Explain the results. Demonstrate the impact of the solution they chose by backing up their positive experience with data. Fill in with customer quotes and tangible, measurable results that show the effect of their choice.
- Ask for action. Include a CTA at the end of the case study that invites readers to reach out for more information, try a demo, or learn more — to nurture them further in the marketing pipeline. What you ask of the reader should tie directly into the goals that were established for the case study in the first place.
Template 2 — Data-driven format
- Start with an engaging title. Be sure to include a statistic or data point in the first 70 characters. Again, it’s best to include the customer’s name as part of the title.
- Create an overview. Share the customer’s background and a short version of the challenge they faced. Present the reason a particular product or service was chosen, and feel free to include quotes from the customer about their selection process.
- Present data point 1. Isolate the first metric that the customer used to define success and explain how the product or solution helped to achieve this goal. Provide data points and quotes to substantiate the claim that success was achieved.
- Present data point 2. Isolate the second metric that the customer used to define success and explain what the product or solution did to achieve this goal. Provide data points and quotes to substantiate the claim that success was achieved.
- Present data point 3. Isolate the final metric that the customer used to define success and explain what the product or solution did to achieve this goal. Provide data points and quotes to substantiate the claim that success was achieved.
- Summarize the results. Reiterate the fact that the customer was able to achieve success thanks to a specific product or service. Include quotes and statements that reflect customer satisfaction and suggest they plan to continue using the solution.
- Ask for action. Include a CTA at the end of the case study that asks readers to reach out for more information, try a demo, or learn more — to further nurture them in the marketing pipeline. Again, remember that this is where marketers can look to convert their content into action with the customer.
While templates are helpful, seeing a case study in action can also be a great way to learn. Here are some examples of how Adobe customers have experienced success.
One example is the Adobe and Juniper Networks case study , which puts the reader in the customer’s shoes. The beginning of the story quickly orients the reader so that they know exactly who the article is about and what they were trying to achieve. Solutions are outlined in a way that shows Adobe Experience Manager is the best choice and a natural fit for the customer. Along the way, quotes from the client are incorporated to help add validity to the statements. The results in the case study are conveyed with clear evidence of scale and volume using tangible data.
The story of Lenovo’s journey with Adobe is one that spans years of planning, implementation, and rollout. The Lenovo case study does a great job of consolidating all of this into a relatable journey that other enterprise organizations can see themselves taking, despite the project size. This case study also features descriptive headers and compelling visual elements that engage the reader and strengthen the content.
When it comes to using data to show customer results, this case study does an excellent job of conveying details and numbers in an easy-to-digest manner. Bullet points at the start break up the content while also helping the reader understand exactly what the case study will be about. Tata Consulting used Adobe to deliver elevated, engaging content experiences for a large telecommunications client of its own — an objective that’s relatable for a lot of companies.
Case studies are a vital tool for any marketing team as they enable you to demonstrate the value of your company’s products and services to others. They help marketers do their job and add credibility to a brand trying to promote its solutions by using the experiences and stories of real customers.
When you’re ready to get started with a case study:
- Think about a few goals you’d like to accomplish with your content.
- Make a list of successful clients that would be strong candidates for a case study.
- Reach out to the client to get their approval and conduct an interview.
- Gather the data to present an engaging and effective customer story.
Adobe can help
There are several Adobe products that can help you craft compelling case studies. Adobe Experience Platform helps you collect data and deliver great customer experiences across every channel. Once you’ve created your case studies, Experience Platform will help you deliver the right information to the right customer at the right time for maximum impact.
To learn more, watch the Adobe Experience Platform story .
Keep in mind that the best case studies are backed by data. That’s where Adobe Real-Time Customer Data Platform and Adobe Analytics come into play. With Real-Time CDP, you can gather the data you need to build a great case study and target specific customers to deliver the content to the right audience at the perfect moment.
Watch the Real-Time CDP overview video to learn more.
Finally, Adobe Analytics turns real-time data into real-time insights. It helps your business collect and synthesize data from multiple platforms to make more informed decisions and create the best case study possible.
Request a demo to learn more about Adobe Analytics.
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- What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods
What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods
Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 22, 2023.
A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.
A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .
Table of contents
When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case, other interesting articles.
A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.
Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.
You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.
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Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:
- Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
- Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
- Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
- Open up new directions for future research
TipIf your research is more practical in nature and aims to simultaneously investigate an issue as you solve it, consider conducting action research instead.
Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.
Example of an outlying case studyIn the 1960s the town of Roseto, Pennsylvania was discovered to have extremely low rates of heart disease compared to the US average. It became an important case study for understanding previously neglected causes of heart disease.
However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.
Example of a representative case studyIn the 1920s, two sociologists used Muncie, Indiana as a case study of a typical American city that supposedly exemplified the changing culture of the US at the time.
While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:
- Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
- Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
- Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions
To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.
There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.
Example of a mixed methods case studyFor a case study of a wind farm development in a rural area, you could collect quantitative data on employment rates and business revenue, collect qualitative data on local people’s perceptions and experiences, and analyze local and national media coverage of the development.
The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.
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In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.
How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .
Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).
In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.
If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- Normal distribution
- Degrees of freedom
- Null hypothesis
- Discourse analysis
- Control groups
- Mixed methods research
- Non-probability sampling
- Quantitative research
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- Rosenthal effect
- Implicit bias
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All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study
What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.
What Is a Case Study?
A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.
What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?
While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.
Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.
The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.
Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:
Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.
Types of Case Studies
The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:
- Historical case studies are great to learn from. Historical events have a multitude of source info offering different perspectives. There are always modern parallels where these perspectives can be applied, compared, and thoroughly analyzed.
- Problem-oriented case studies are usually used for solving problems. These are often assigned as theoretical situations where you need to immerse yourself in the situation to examine it. Imagine you’re working for a startup and you’ve just noticed a significant flaw in your product’s design. Before taking it to the senior manager, you want to do a comprehensive study on the issue and provide solutions. On a greater scale, problem-oriented case studies are a vital part of relevant socio-economic discussions.
- Cumulative case studies collect information and offer comparisons. In business, case studies are often used to tell people about the value of a product.
- Critical case studies explore the causes and effects of a certain case.
- Illustrative case studies describe certain events, investigating outcomes and lessons learned.
Case Study Format
The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:
- Executive Summary. Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you’re researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences.
- Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.
- Case Evaluation. Isolate the sections of the study you want to focus on. In it, explain why something is working or is not working.
- Proposed Solutions. Offer realistic ways to solve what isn’t working or how to improve its current condition. Explain why these solutions work by offering testable evidence.
- Conclusion. Summarize the main points from the case evaluations and proposed solutions. 6. Recommendations. Talk about the strategy that you should choose. Explain why this choice is the most appropriate.
- Implementation. Explain how to put the specific strategies into action.
- References. Provide all the citations.
How to Write a Case Study
Let's discover how to write a case study.
Setting Up the Research
When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:
- Define your objective. Explain the reason why you’re presenting your subject. Figure out where you will feature your case study; whether it is written, on video, shown as an infographic, streamed as a podcast, etc.
- Determine who will be the right candidate for your case study. Get permission, quotes, and other features that will make your case study effective. Get in touch with your candidate to see if they approve of being part of your work. Study that candidate’s situation and note down what caused it.
- Identify which various consequences could result from the situation. Follow these guidelines on how to start a case study: surf the net to find some general information you might find useful.
- Make a list of credible sources and examine them. Seek out important facts and highlight problems. Always write down your ideas and make sure to brainstorm.
- Focus on several key issues – why they exist, and how they impact your research subject. Think of several unique solutions. Draw from class discussions, readings, and personal experience. When writing a case study, focus on the best solution and explore it in depth. After having all your research in place, writing a case study will be easy. You may first want to check the rubric and criteria of your assignment for the correct case study structure.
Read Also: 'CREDIBLE SOURCES: WHAT ARE THEY?'
Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:
- Correctly identify the concepts, theories, and practices in the discipline.
- Identify the relevant theories and principles associated with the particular study.
- Evaluate legal and ethical principles and apply them to your decision-making.
- Recognize the global importance and contribution of your case.
- Construct a coherent summary and explanation of the study.
- Demonstrate analytical and critical-thinking skills.
- Explain the interrelationships between the environment and nature.
- Integrate theory and practice of the discipline within the analysis.
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Case Study Outline
Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.
- Statement of the issue: Alcoholism is a disease rather than a weakness of character.
- Presentation of the problem: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there.
- Explanation of the terms: In the past, alcoholism was commonly referred to as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction. Alcoholism is now the more severe stage of this addiction in the disorder spectrum.
- Hypotheses: Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs.
- Importance of your story: How the information you present can help people with their addictions.
- Background of the story: Include an explanation of why you chose this topic.
- Presentation of analysis and data: Describe the criteria for choosing 30 candidates, the structure of the interview, and the outcomes.
- Strong argument 1: ex. X% of candidates dealing with anxiety and depression...
- Strong argument 2: ex. X amount of people started drinking by their mid-teens.
- Strong argument 3: ex. X% of respondents’ parents had issues with alcohol.
- Concluding statement: I have researched if alcoholism is a disease and found out that…
- Recommendations: Ways and actions for preventing alcohol use.
Writing a Case Study Draft
After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:
- Your draft should contain at least 4 sections: an introduction; a body where you should include background information, an explanation of why you decided to do this case study, and a presentation of your main findings; a conclusion where you present data; and references.
- In the introduction, you should set the pace very clearly. You can even raise a question or quote someone you interviewed in the research phase. It must provide adequate background information on the topic. The background may include analyses of previous studies on your topic. Include the aim of your case here as well. Think of it as a thesis statement. The aim must describe the purpose of your work—presenting the issues that you want to tackle. Include background information, such as photos or videos you used when doing the research.
- Describe your unique research process, whether it was through interviews, observations, academic journals, etc. The next point includes providing the results of your research. Tell the audience what you found out. Why is this important, and what could be learned from it? Discuss the real implications of the problem and its significance in the world.
- Include quotes and data (such as findings, percentages, and awards). This will add a personal touch and better credibility to the case you present. Explain what results you find during your interviews in regards to the problem and how it developed. Also, write about solutions which have already been proposed by other people who have already written about this case.
- At the end of your case study, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving them yourself.
Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study
Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :
With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.
Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.
Finalizing the Draft: Checklist
After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:
- Check that you follow the correct case study format, also in regards to text formatting.
- Check that your work is consistent with its referencing and citation style.
- Micro-editing — check for grammar and spelling issues.
- Macro-editing — does ‘the big picture’ come across to the reader? Is there enough raw data, such as real-life examples or personal experiences? Have you made your data collection process completely transparent? Does your analysis provide a clear conclusion, allowing for further research and practice?
Problems to avoid:
- Overgeneralization – Do not go into further research that deviates from the main problem.
- Failure to Document Limitations – Just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
- Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications – Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.
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How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study
Let's see how to create an awesome title page.
Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:
- A title that attracts some attention and describes your study
- The title should have the words “case study” in it
- The title should range between 5-9 words in length
- Your name and contact information
- Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length. With this type of assignment, write effectively and avoid fluff.
Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:
There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.
Citation Example in MLA Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.
Case Study Examples
To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.
Eastman Kodak Case Study
Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany
To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .
Get Help Form Qualified Writers
Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. If you’re having trouble with your case study, help with essay request - we'll help. EssayPro writers have read and written countless case studies and are experts in endless disciplines. Request essay writing, editing, or proofreading assistance from our custom case study writing service , and all of your worries will be gone.
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How to Define Your Case Study Strategy (And Why You Need One)
Unfortunately, few companies have a defined customer case study strategy in place.
Often, they’ll just identify a good customer or project (“This would make a great case study!”) and then fly at it.
If they get that case study done, they may eventually turn to another good candidate and repeat the process.
And that’s as far as it goes.
But when you take this piecemeal approach, and overlook the strategy piece, you may run into the following problems:
- You struggle to get customers to agree to participate in your case study
- You get agreement but then struggle to find the right people to interview
- You feel weird asking because the engagement is over and done with
- You completed one (or maybe two) case studies but the rest have stalled
- Your completed case studies focus on a solution or industry you’re trying to transition away from
- All your case studies are over a year old
- Your case studies are relegated to some sad part of your website.
You don’t want to plunge in without a plan.
Instead, start by developing a strategy to guide your efforts and keep the case study train going.
Developing Your Case Study Strategy
So how do you develop a case study strategy?
You start by asking these three questions BEFORE you get the customer on the phone:
Question #1: What is your goal?
Are you trying to promote a certain service? Drive a certain type of lead? Upsell part of your offering?
You need to know your main purpose before you start.
Question #2: Whom are you targeting?
Not all positions are the same. The pressures a CEO and CMO face are different than the pressures faced by someone in IT.
You need to know who you’re selling to because you want them to see themselves in the story.
After all, case studies are human stories . They’re not really about the company.
They’re about how you helped the people within the company succeed and reach their objectives.
Case studies are human stories. They’re not really about the company.
Question #3: how will you use them.
Will you relegate your case studies to the resources section of your website? (Hopefully not.)
Will you put them on your blog? Use them in outreach? Arm your sales team with them?
You need to know HOW you will use your case studies because that will influence the case study format and how you put them together.
Figure out the story you want to tell
Once you’ve asked yourself these questions, you can go deeper into figuring out the kind of stories you want to tell.
If you’re trying to promote a particular service , for example, you’ll want to speak with a customer who’s gone through the experience of implementing that service.
If you’re trying to promote a particular service within a particular industry , you’ll want to speak with a customer who’s implemented that service in that industry.
Or maybe you want to show leads that you solved a particular challenge within that industry with that service.
Or maybe you want to appeal to a particular role within that industry who implemented that particular service.
As you can see, you can define your “ideal” case study candidate by many factors, drilling down from service, to industry, to challenge, to role:
By considering all of these layers, you can figure out who on your client roster can give you the story you want.
Tip: Talk to your sales team
A possible shortcut in this kind of analysis is to talk to your sales team.
Salespeople need case studies like oxygen. They’re the most persuasive asset they have to close deals.
Customer success stories are the most persuasive asset your sales team has to close deals.
Your sales team will know the kinds of stories they need to share with leads and the most common problems and pushback.
So rather than huddling with your marketing team to develop your strategy , bring your sales team into the conversation.
The stories you tell will be the stories you attract
One last key point: The stories you tell will be the stories you attract.
If all of your case studies tell the story of how small accounting firms have used your software to grow, you will attract small accounting firms that want to use your software to grow.
Which is a problem if you want to attract bigger accounting firms, for example.
So think carefully about the stories you want to tell and plan accordingly.
Define your case study strategy BEFORE you start
It’s easy to overlook the strategy piece in your excitement to get started, but it’s super important.
Creating customer case studies isn’t easy. It takes time and resources to do well.
So when you do it, you want to make sure you’re doing it right.
Want our team to create those case studies for you—and help with the strategy piece?
Contact us to start the conversation.
Head of Writing and Interviewing
Based in Vancouver, Canada, Holly is pumped to tell stories of companies succeeding and doing good in the world.
Ya, you like that? Well, there’s more where that came from!
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How Case Studies Help Mobile Escape Impress Buyers and Prospects
Mobile Escape is the creator of Escape Mail, an award-winning product that brings the ‘escape room’ style game experience to remote teams and classrooms via the mail. They even create custom experiences, such as the ‘Mission to Mars’ game created for Ag for Life. Case Study Buddy helped Mobile Escape capture Ag for Life’s experience with this bespoke product and turn it into a case study that… Demonstrates proof of concept to buyers Communicates clear value to businesses and nonprofits...
How to Capture Video Testimonials at Events
How do you get customer video testimonials at live events? Live events are gold mines for customer testimonial videos. Whether it’s a conference, trade show, meet-up, or private event, the stars align: your customers are all in one place, positive emotions are running high, and you can walk away with hours of incredible testimonial footage—and potential case studies—if you approach this with a well-thought-out, proactive plan. In this step-by-step guide (with schedules and templates/ideas throughout), you’ll get insight into the strategy,...
Let’s tell your stories together.
Get in touch to start a conversation.
Free tracking template:
How to capture video, testimonials at live events.
The big list of 100 ways to use your case studies.
If your case studies and video testimonials live only on the customer success page of your website, you’re missing out. You can do SO MUCH MORE with these versatile assets.
Get our actionable guide to using case studies across your sales and marketing funnel (and beyond) to wring out every ounce of value.
How To Write A Case Study [Template plus 20+ Examples]
In an era where every niche seems completely saturated, learning how to write a case study is one of the most important time investments you can make in your business.
That’s because case studies help you present a compelling story of success to bottom-of–funnel decision makers. Do it right, and a solid case study can greatly increase your chances of closing new deals.
A 2023 study from the Content Marketing Institute found that 36% of B2B marketers consider case studies to be effective tools for converting prospects into customers.
In this article, I’ll show you step-by-step exactly how to write a case study that makes an impact. Along the way, I’ll highlight several stellar case studies that illustrate how to do it right.
What you will learn
- What a case study is and what it's not.
- How an effective case study can help establish you as an expert and land more clients.
- How to choose the right topic for your case study, taking into account client successes and broad appeal in your customer's industry.
- The essential parts of a good case study and how to write each one.
- Style and formatting points that will make your case study stand out for readers to understand.
- 4 tips for conducting an effective client interview.
- 6 real-life case studies that you can use as examples for creating your own customer stories.
What is a case study?
A case study is a detailed story about how your products or services helped a client overcome a challenge or meet a goal. Its main purpose is to prove to potential customers that you understand their problems and have the experience and expertise to help solve them.
But, even though a case study can help you attract and win customers, it's not just an advertisement for your offerings.
In truth, your company shouldn’t even be the main focus of a good case study.
Instead, a winning case study follows a successful business transformation from beginning to end and shows how you made it all possible for your client.
An example of a case study that conveys a strong customer story is the deep dive we did into how ClickUp used SurferSEO to boost their blog traffic by 85% in a year.
Why you should write a case study
The most obvious reason why you should write a case study is that it's a great way to show potential customers how others in their position have benefited from your product or service.
Here are a few of the key benefits of writing a case study, all of which can help you turn readers into customers.
A well-written case study shows clearly how your company solved a complex problem or helped a particular customer make improvements using your solution.
This is the sort of expertise other potential clients will look for when they run into the same sort of issues.
For instance, one of CrowdStrike's case studies shows how they helped Vijilan scale its logging capacity so they could stop turning away business.
This positions CrowdStrike as experts in helping deal with log management issues.
Other companies dealing with their own logging problems will definitely find this to be a compelling story. And you can bet CrowdStrike will be on their short list of potential solution providers after reading this case study.
Educates potential customers
You might have the best product on the market, but it won't do you any good if potential clients don't understand how it might help them.
A case study breaks down those barriers by showing real-life examples of your product in action, helping other customers solve their problems.
A good example is the Trello case study library .
Each story gives detailed examples showing how the customer uses Trello and includes actual screenshots from their workflows.
Here is an interesting snapshot from the BurgerFi example.
Here, you get a glimpse of a live Trello board that BurgerFi uses to manage their marketing assets.
By showing how existing clients use your product, you make it a lot easier for future customers to imagine how it might work for their needs, too.
A strong case study is a valuable piece of content that provides insights and can help companies make decisions.
Many of them would be happy to give you their contact information in exchange for the chance to read about potential solutions to their problems.
That combination of valuable content and a hungry market makes case studies great tools for lead generation.
You can either gate part of your case study and leave the rest of it public, or require an email address and other contact information in order to download the full study.
That's the approach Pulsara took in detailing how their telehealth communication platform helped EvergreenHealth improve efficiency:
The names and addresses you collect with this approach will be about as warm as you could ever hope for since they probably have the same sort of problems you solved in your case study.
Along the same lines, case studies can be extremely effective in upselling or cross-selling other products to the decision-makers who read them.
And they are great tools for persuading a client to make a purchase with you.
Indeed, a great case study can often be the "final straw" that lands you a client considering your services.
A 2023 survey by Uplift Content , for example, found that 39% of SaaS marketers ranked case studies as being very effective for increasing sales.
That made it their #1 tactic for the second year in a row.
Potential clients want to know that they can trust you to handle their business with care and to deliver on your promises.
A case study is the perfect vehicle to show that you can do just that.
Take advantage of that opportunity to present statistics, client testimonials, graphics, and any other proof that you can get results.
For example, in their case study about helping a law firm uncover critical data for a tricky case, Kroll shows us just how much they were able to cut through the noise:
Any law firm staring at its own pile of documents to search through would love to have that haystack reduced by a factor of 32.5x, too.
And Sodexo makes good use of customer testimonials in their case studies, like this quote from the procurement lead for a Montana mining company.
Having existing customers tell the world that they count on you is powerful free advertising and builds trust with your readers. That can help transform them into customers down the road.
Provides social proof
You can also use your case study to show that your product or service works in a specific industry.
Real-world examples of customer success stories position you as someone their peers and competitors can turn to, too.
For instance, Stericycle details how they helped seven children's hospitals get a handle on their "sharps" management:
They also include glowing quotes from hospital leaders in the same study.
Other hospitals looking for help in disposing of their hazardous waste will know right away after reading this study that Stericycle understands their needs.
This is the type of social proof that can really help establish you as a go-to solution for the industries you serve.
How to choose a subject for your case study
In order to get the most bang for your buck from your case study, you need to make sure you pick a topic that resonates with your target audience. And one that can make your solution look its best.
Below are 4 ways to select the best subject for your case study.
1. Choose a popular topic
Make sure the topic you tackle in your case study is one that most of your potential clients are searching for.
You may be tempted to highlight an unusual project that you find especially interesting. But that usually won't have the same sort of selling power as a topic with more broad appeal.
For instance, Aruba Networks has helped colleges and universities with all sorts of networking projects. Some of those involve really fascinating edge cases like research labs, esports arenas, and other innovative solutions.
But what most schools are looking for in a network upgrade is improving connectivity across campus while enhancing security and saving money.
Those are exactly the outcomes Aruba focuses on in its Doane University case study .
Remember that your case study is likely to be read by decision-makers at the bottom of the sales funnel who are ready to buy.
Your content needs to resonate with them and address the questions they want answered in order to make their decision.
Aruba tackles their customers' concerns head-on throughout the Doane study, as you can see from their section headings:
- "Realizing a hyper-connected vision"
- "10X throughput eliminates academic barriers"
- "More secure with less effort"
- "Greener and more resilient at better insurance rates"
College administrators can see at a glance that Aruba understands their needs and has helped other institutions with similar problems.
2. Consider relevance and attractiveness
Although you want to choose a popular subject for your case study (as discussed above), it's also important to make sure it's relevant to your target audience.
For instance, if you provide design services, a one-off project you did to help a local company set up its website might have taught you a lot. But most of your potential readers will be much more interested in reading about how your designs helped that client improve brand perception.
It’s also best to choose a situation where your product or service is used in a way that you expect most potential users to adopt.
For example, Allegion's Mount Holyoke case study (PDF) details how one campus used their products to move to contactless and mobile entry systems.
Students today demand more control over their physical security than ever before. And the administrative overhead of managing thousands of doors and physical keys on a college campus is enormous.
As a result, most schools are interested in using technology to enable their students and reduce staffing costs.
Allegion hits those points dead-on with this case study.
An added benefit of choosing a topic with broad appeal among your target client base is that you can use the content in your normal distribution channels.
For example, you can publish all or part of it as a blog post, include it in your newsletter, or use it as the basis for a YouTube video. Wherever your audience is, that's probably a good place to promote your case study.
3. Identify a 5 star use case
A case study is like a sales executive for your company.
It needs to show your product or service in the best possible light and highlight its features and benefits while distinguishing it from other products.
Choose a client example that really makes your solution look like a superstar and showcases its most outstanding attributes.
You should also avoid showing your product or service being used in a novel or completely innovative way. While that can provide some solid insight, you risk alienating your typical client who needs to know that you can solve their specific problem.
Instead, your case study should demonstrate how your solution took on a common industry problem and delivered stellar results.
A great example is Beckman Coulter's case study that details their work with Alverno Labs.
The objective was to reduce the time it took Alverno to deliver lab test results while reducing operating costs, which are common goals for many testing labs.
The case study presents a detailed description of how Beckman Coulter implemented a continuous improvement process for Alverno. They enhance the discussion with several meaty visuals like this project roadmap:
They also include plenty of tangible data to prove their success.
And of course, include direct client testimonials:
From top to bottom, this case study proves that Beckman Coulter understands their customers business needs and can offer top-notch solutions.
4. Find a satisfied customer
You're going to need input from your client in order to build the most complete and accurate case study that you can.
So when you're trying to choose a customer story to use, look for a client who is happy to share their positive experience working with you.
Try to find one who seems genuinely eager to talk so that they will be timely with their responses to your questions.
If you have a customer who is willing to sit down for an actual interview with you, they're a great candidate. You'll get answers quickly, and the client is obviously comfortable enough with your relationship to talk with you directly.
A good example that focuses on a satisfied client comes from Aerofloat, an Australian wastewater treatment company.
In their Norco Food Case Study , Aerofloat reports that Norco hired them for additional projects as a result of their successful prior engagement:
It's always good to show prospective clients that your existing customers stick with you.
So try to pick a case study done in collaboration with a current client, not one from the past.
Aerofloat also highlights their ongoing relationship with Norco by also including them in the customer list on their About page:
How to write a case study
Now that we’ve covered the benefits of writing a case study and figured out how to pick the best topic for your situation, it’s time to get down to the business of writing.
Below is a rundown of the sections that make up the structure of a typical case study. For each piece, I’ll show you what types of content you should include and give you an example of a study that does it right.
Here are 8 tips to writing a case study.
1. Attention grabbing title
The title of your case study needs to grab potential readers attention and convince them that this is a valuable piece of content.
Make your title catchy, concise, and descriptive, just like you would for a good blog post. But you also need to make sure you give your readers a clear idea of what the case study is about.
Offer them at least a hint of the type of results you were able to deliver, too.
It’s a good idea to use numbers here – the higher, the better. It's especially effective if you can show how quickly you got results and how much money your client saved or made as a result of working with you.
Our ClickUp case study that I mentioned earlier is a good example. The full title is
SurferSEO Helps ClickUp Publish 150+ Articles And Achieve Blog Traffic Growth of 85% in 12 Months.
Here are some other case studies that make effective use of numbers in their titles:
- Healthcare Administrative Partners Increases Online Patient Payments by 20% in Two Months
- Case Study: Taylor Kotwa, Sprinter, Increases FTP 7% in 4 months
- Case Study: Lakeview Farms Reduced Downtime by 36% in 6 Months
- CASELY case study: Improved first response time by 10x while experiencing 16,954% growth
This type of headline gives potential clients a sense that you will work with urgency to improve their bottom-line results.
2. Hook readers in your introduction
The introduction of your case study should set the stage for the comprehensive narrative that follows.
Give a brief description of the problem for context and quickly introduce the customer's story. Touch on the results you helped them achieve, but don't go overboard on details.
Overall, the introduction should give your reader just enough information to keep them engaged and ready to move into the heart of the case study.
It should also establish that they're in the right place and that you are the right person to be telling this story.
This case study about the cybersecurity program at Investors Bank includes a solid example of an effective introduction:
3. Highlight the challenge
This section should clearly outline the problem or challenge that your customer is facing.
Help your readers understand why a solution was necessary, and why that specific pain point was bothering the client.
And, since this is the entire motivation for the project in the first place, don't skimp on details.
For instance, one of Verkada's case studies explains why maintaining security cameras is a huge challenge for Crystal Mountain Resort in Washington state. They start off with a direct quote from the resort's IT director:
The elevation tops out at a little over 7,000 feet, so the weather conditions can get extreme. We needed durable cameras capable of handling everything from snowstorms to 100 MPH winds.
That makes it crystal clear what sort of problem Crystal Mountain was facing.
The case study then adds more detail with separate subsections about hardware durability, image quality, and cumbersome footage retrieval.
By the time they finish reading this section, your readers should have no doubt about what the problem is and why a solution is needed.
4. Solve their problem
The solution section is one of the most important parts of a case study.
This is your chance to describe how your product or service provided a solution to the problem or challenge your client was having.
It's where you can really start to make a connection with potential new clients by showing them that you understand the issue at hand.
First, provide some details about how you analyzed the situation. The Kroll case study on handling critical legal data mentioned earlier does a great job of this with bullet points describing their research process.
This type of analysis helps build confidence that you take a thorough approach to your engagements and are looking out for your clients best interests.
Now you can move on to describe the solution you and your client chose based on your investigation.
In their legal case study, Kroll determined that the best solution involved digitizing thousands of paper documents and using AI to analyze more than a million documents.
Kroll describes in detail how they used their RelativityOne system to achieve those goals:
This level of detail helps prospective customers better understand the root cause of their problems and positions you as the right company to solve them.
5. Showcase your results
The results section is all about proving that you can actually deliver on the promise of your proposed solution. Go heavy on the details here, too, and make sure your readers understand the results you achieved.
Wherever possible, use specific numbers and data points to show exactly how effective your solution was for your client.
A good example is this BetterBricks case study showing how they helped an aerospace company slash energy costs.
They distilled their bottom line results into a simple table:
The text of the study then goes into more detail about what these numbers mean, but this quick graphic lets readers know right away the scope of the results achieved.
Here is a sampling of BetterBrick’s more detailed explanation of their results in this case:
This is your place to really crow about the success you achieved with your client, so make it as obvious as possible just how impactful you were.
6. Use multimedia well
One way to make a lasting impression on potential clients is to include relevant visuals throughout your case study.
Graphs, screenshots, and product photos help break up the text and make your study more engaging overall.
But they can also add details to your story and make a memorable visual impact beyond what mere words can accomplish.
We got a taste of that with the table of results in the BetterBricks example above, but that's just the start.
Inrix is a good example of a company that loads up its case studies with insightful and engaging media to tell a better story.
For instance, in their breakdown of a collaboration with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (DOT), Inrix uses charts, tables, and graphs throughout.
One innovative example is this diagram about crash distances:
This really brings the idea to life in a way that words alone can't, and it's likely to stick with readers long after they've clicked off the case study.
Other types of media that companies use to good effect in their case studies include pictures of key client stakeholders, interactive charts, tables, and simple graphs.
You can see in this high-level overview that Inrix includes most of these in their Pennsylvania DOT case study:
You can even use video to demonstrate your solution or to share a client testimonial.
If possible, include direct quotes from your client to add authenticity to the case study.
This will show potential customers that you and your existing client have a good relationship and that they value your work.
It’s pretty compelling stuff to have a ringing endorsement like this one from an EnergyCAP case study , to show your readers:
You can place customer quotes throughout the case study to highlight important points, and you should definitely try to include at least one that shows overall customer satisfaction.
Chances are you have some of these quotes already in the form of testimonials or as part of the customer interview you conducted in preparing for your case study (more on that later).
You can use those quotes here if they fit the context of your case study.
That will save time and red tape for both you and your client since they'll be reviewing your final case study before it goes live anyway.
The conclusion should summarize the key points of the case study and reinforce the success of the solution. It could also include a call to action, encouraging readers to try your product or service or to get in touch for more information.
You might also include information about future plans with the client to reinforce the idea that your relationship is strong and ongoing.
That's the approach that Gravitate Design used in their case study about helping GoBeyond with their bounce rates and time on page:
Like the introduction, the conclusion section of a case study should be short and sweet, giving just enough detail to make the reader want to hear more from you.
Checklist for case studies
Beyond the story that you want to tell in your case study, you also need to pay attention to several other factors. Indeed, the layout and format of your study can have a big impact on how effective it is at keeping your readers engaged and delivering your message.
Here is a quick checklist for creating case studies.
Break up the text with headings and subheadings
Big blocks of text can be intimidating and make it tough for your audience to stay on track.
In contrast, a case study with clear headings and subheadings throughout breaks up the story and gives readers visual clues about what's coming.
This also makes the case study easier for readers to scan and helps you keep each section focused on a single idea.
Use bullet points for lists or key points
Along the same lines, bullet points let you present important information in small bits that are easy for readers to digest.
Some of the best uses of bullet points include:
- A series of facts or tips
- A list of product features or benefits
- A quick summary of results
- Steps in a how-to procedure
- A rundown of multiple statistics
For these bite-sized hunks of detail, bullets often make for a much cleaner and readable list than jamming all the information into a single paragraph.
Bullet point lists also make great quick references for readers to come back to later.
Highlight key points with bold or italic text
Bold and italic text draws the reader’s eyes to the words you highlight, which lets you really drive home key ideas in your case study.
You can use this technique to introduce new terms, place emphasis on a sentence, and showcase important parts of your approach or results.
Like bullet points, bold and italic text also give readers a visual anchor for reference as they’re working through your document.
Make paragraphs short and to-the-point
Aim for 3-4 sentences per paragraph to keep the text readable and engaging. Each paragraph should focus on one main idea to support the subject of the section it’s in.
Using short paragraphs tells readers at a glance that there are break points throughout your case study and helps keep them engaged.
Keep consistent length across the case study
Throughout all parts of your case study, try to cover your main points in detail without overwhelming the reader.
Your potential clients are there to find a possible solution to their problems, not to read a novel.
Give them an inviting document structure and then lead them through each section with clear explanations and no fluff.
Adjust the length based on the complexity of the subject
The flip side of the tip above about keeping your case study tight and focused is that you need to make sure you cover your topic in detail.
Very complex topics will require more explanation and longer overall case studies than simpler subjects.
For example, a case study about paving a church parking lot might be pretty short.
But a story about implementing a comprehensive information security program for a state government will likely be much longer and more detailed.
Include a summary with some takeaways
At the end of your case study, summarize the key takeaways and results to reinforce the message you’re trying to get across.
Briefly recap the problem your client was facing, the solution you came up with, and the results you achieved. Think of this as an executive summary that gives business leaders the TL;DR version of your customer’s success story.
Content Snare includes an eye-catching summary in the case study detailing their efforts to grow their email list:
The overall goal is to leave potential clients with a good last impression and invite them to contact you with questions.
Use visuals to break up text and illustrate points
As we saw in the "How to write a case study" section above, graphs, charts, or images can make your case study more engaging and help illustrate key ideas or results. They also add visual variety and help break up the monotony of text-heavy studies.
Use these types of visuals to help keep your readers interested and make your story more complete.
Below is a high-level view of a portion of Advanced HPC’s Philips case study , which does a great job of incorporating the points in this section. It pulls together all the visual elements to create a very appealing reader experience.
4 tips to create an effective case study
You’re going to need your customer’s input in order to craft the most effective case study possible. It’s their story, after all, and they’re the ones who know what it was like to work with you throughout the process.
They also hold key details that you probably don’t know.
So, once you have their permission to write about the project, you’ll need to talk to them about the specifics. But you also want to respect their time.
Here are 4 tips on how to conduct an interview for your case study.
Prepare questions in advance
Know what information you need and prepare questions to pull that information from your client.
Doing this in advance will help you formulate the questions and sequence them properly to avoid bias and wasting time.
Have a few follow-up or emergency questions ready, too, in case you run into a dead end.
Record the interview
With your client’s permission, record the interview to ensure accuracy and so you can come back to listen to important points again.
This helps you avoid bothering your clients with follow-up questions and also gives you more freedom to let the interview evolve in a natural conversational manner.
Make the interviewee comfortable
Explain the interview process to your client, why you're asking them to talk, and how the information will be used. Remember that you are the one who “needs” the case study, not them.
So you go the extra mile to ensure that your guest is as comfortable as possible.
That also means being flexible with the format of your interview.
If your client doesn’t have time for calls, offer to trade voice notes. Or give them a shared Google document for trading questions and answers.
And if you do end up conducting a live interview, agree to meet at a time that’s best for them.
No matter how you end up conducting your interview, make it clear that your client will be able to review the final version before you make it live.
Give them veto power over any of the information you put together.
Ask open-ended questions
Even though you’ll start out with a series of questions you need answered, don’t limit yourself to those. Instead, encourage your interviewee to share their story in their own words.
Leave some room to ask open-ended questions and let the conversation evolve naturally.
Here are a few examples of the types of questions for discussion:
- What would you do differently if you were starting this project again?
- What do you think about XYZ emerging technology in relation to your industry's challenges?
- What sorts of other projects do you think Acme's solution might help with?
- How do your company's day-to-day operations and needs from how the relevant theories describe the industry?
Especially if you’re recording the interview, as suggested above, you can go back later and put things in a logical order.
Once you have all of the raw material, then you can curate the information and edit it to come up with your final product.
6 case study examples to follow
Now that you know what makes a great case study and how to write one, let's finish up with a few more top-notch business case study examples.
Each of the case studies below hits many of the points in this article, but they all take a different approach. Use them for inspiration or when you need a little refresher on how to write a case study.
This case study provides a detailed account of how Monograph, a B2B SaaS company, improved its marketing projects and reporting using Databox.
It's a pretty straightforward example of the best practices we've discussed in this article, with an introduction followed by background information on the company (Monograph) and the challenges they faced with manual tracking of each data point.
It describes the solution that Databox helped put in place and then shows clear evidence of the results their customer achieved:
Case studies don't come much more textbook than this one, which makes it a great example to follow.
Growth Design on Airbnb
Growth Design takes a totally unique approach to case studies, each one is an online comic book!
Read through their case study about Airbnb , though, and you'll see that it meets all the criteria for a complete case study even if the setup is a little different than most.
Here is a look at the landing page for this beauty of a study.
The author starts out with a problem: the need to book a place to stay in a foreign country in a hurry. So he heads to Airbnb but ends up overwhelmed by choices and bounces to Google Maps to make his reservation.
He concludes that Airbnb was not the full solution for him in this case and suggests several places they could make improvements.
It's a pretty neat dive into a well-known user experience, and it's also a great lesson in how to use visuals to keep your readers engaged in your case study.
This case study about how Grubhub used Webflow to build a viral marketing campaign hits you with stunning results right off the bat.
From there, the study tells the full story of how they achieved these results. Even though the author doesn't explicitly break out the problem, solution, and results sections, she still takes the reader through that journey.
It's a concise but complete story broken up by a few choice graphics.
This case study dives into how Employment Hero uses Slack to keep their remote employees engaged and productive as the company grows.
It details how Employee Hero continuously reevaluates its app usage to identify possible solutions to issues that arise and how Slack consistently helps meet the challenges.
This case study is a great example of picking a use case that is relevant to most of Slack's user base -- improving communication and productivity among remote employees.
Slack also makes effective use of quotes from the decision makers at Employment Hero.
We already talked about our ClickUp case study a little earlier in this article, but it's worth a deeper look as an example to help guide your writing.
As you would expect, this case study hits main points we've covered here: problem statement, solution, and results.
But there are a couple of "extras" that make this one stand out.
For starters, it doesn't just present a single solution. It presents three , each one addressing a different aspect of ClickUp's objectives and each one showcasing a different Surfer feature set.
For example, solution #1 describes how ClickUp improved their on-page SEO with the help of Surfer’s Content Editor .
This case study also provides a high-level view of ClickUp’s project management processes and describes how they incorporated Surfer into their content workflows.
It’s a really instructive example of how you can use a case study to help prospective clients envision how your product might fit their situation.
This one isn't a single case study at all but a library full of case studies designed to help potential clients understand how Zoom can benefit them.
Here you'll find stories about how very recognizable organizations like Capital One, Vox Media, and the University of Miami are using Zoom to boost connectivity and productivity among remote workers.
There are plenty of good examples here that you can consult when you get stuck writing your own case study.
And the entire library is a great example of using case studies to demonstrate expertise with the help of social proof:
The Zoom case study library also makes liberal use of video, which might give you some good ideas about how you can, too.
- Case studies are one of the best ways to generate leads and convert readers into customers.
- By showcasing the success you've had helping previous customers, case studies position you as an expert in your field.
- Good case studies can be the final push businesses need in their decision making process to buy your products or services.
- Pick a use case for your study that has broad appeal in your industry and that showcases your products and services in the best light possible.
- Effective case studies follow a predictable format: introduction, problem statement, solution, results, and conclusion.
- Make your case studies as readable as possible by including visual elements like graphs and images, and by breaking up the text into smaller sections, subsections, and concise paragraphs.
- Be as thorough and accurate as possible by conducting client interviews to gather background information for your case studies.
- Follow top-notch case studies for inspiration and ideas about how to make your own case studies as good as possible.
A well-written case study shines a light on your products and services like nothing else and helps position you as an expert in your field.
By showing that you understand their problems and have helped others overcome similar issues, you can prove to prospective clients that you are well-suited to help them, too.
Use the step-by-step instructions in this article to craft a case study that helps you and your company stand out from the competition.
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How to write a Case Study?
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There may be a variety of ways of writting a case study. There are approximately four types of wriiting case studies; illustrative (descriptive of events), exploratory (investigative), cumulative (collective information comparisons) and critical (examine particular subject with cause and effect outcomes). After becoming familiar with the different types and styles of case study instructions and how each applies to your purposes, there are some steps that help writing the case smoothly. These may ensure the development and delivery of a uniform case study while that can be used to prove a point or illustrate accomplishments.
PHASE I – GETTING STARTED
Step 1 – Determine which case study type, design or style is most applicable to your intended audiance.
- Corporations may choose illustrative case studies to show what has been done for a client; schools, educators and students may select cumulative or critical case studies and legal teams may demonstrate exploratory (investigative) case studies as a way to provide factual evidence.
- Whatever case study type you are employing, your purpose is to thoroughly analyze a situation (or “case”) which could reveal factors or information otherwise ignored or unknown. They can be written about companies, whole countries, or even individuals. What’s more, they can be written on more abstract things, like programs or practices. Really, if you can dream it, you can write a case study about it.
Step 2 – Determine the topic of your case study.
- Once you’ve picked your angle, you need to determine what your research will be about and where it will take place (your case site). What have you talked about in class? Have you caught yourself coming up with questions during your reading?
- Start your research at the library and/or on the Internet to begin delving into a specific problem. Once you’ve narrowed down your search to a very specific problem, find as much about it as you can in a variety of different sources. Look up information in books, journals, DVDs, websites, magazines, newspapers, etc. As you go through each one, take adequate notes so you can find the info later!
Step 3 – Research case studies that have been published on the same or similar subject matter.
- Talk to your colleagues, go to the library, surf the web until your bum falls asleep. You don’t want to be repeating research that has already been done.
- Find out what has been written before, and read the important articles about your case site. When you do this, you may find there is an existing problem that needs solving, or you may find that you have to come up with an interesting idea that might or might not work at your case site.
- Review sample case studies that are similar in style and scope to get an idea of composition and format, too.
PHASE II – PREPARING FOR THE INTERVIEWS
Step 1 – Select participants that you will interview for inclusion in your case study.
- Experts in a particular field of study or customers that have implemented a tool or service that is the subject of the study will provide the best information.
- Find knowledgeable people to interview. They don’t necessarily have to be on your site, but they must be, actively or in the past, directly involved.
- Determine whether you will interview an individual or group of individuals to serve as examples in your case study. It may be beneficial for participants to gather as a group and provide insight collectively. If the study focuses on personal subject matter or medical issues, it may be better to conduct personal interviews.
- Gather as much information as possible about your subjects to ensure that you develop interviews and activities that will result in obtaining the most advantageous information to your study.
Step 2 – Draft a list of interview questions and decide upon how you will conduct your study.
- This could be via in-person group interviews and activities, personal interviews, or phone interviews. Sometimes, email is an option.
- When you are interviewing people, ask them questions that will help you understand their opinions. I.e., How do you feel about the situation? What can you tell me about how the site (or the situation) developed? What do you think should be different, if anything? You also need to ask questions that will give you facts that might not be available from an article–make your work different and purposeful.
Step 3 – Set up interviews with subject matter experts (account managers in a corporation, clients and customers using applicable tools and services, etc.).
- Make sure all your informants are aware of what you’re doing. They need to be fully informed (and signing waivers in certain cases) and your questions need to be appropriate and not controversial.
PHASE III – OBTAINING DATA
Step 1 – Conduct interviews.
- Ask the same or similar questions of all subjects involved to ensure that you get different perspectives on a similar subject or service.
- When you ask a question that doesn’t let someone answer with a “yes” or a “no” you usually get more information. What you are trying to do is get the person to tell you whatever it is that he or she knows and thinks –even though you don’t always know just what that is going to be before you ask the question. Keep your questions open-ended.
- Request data and materials from subjects as applicable to add credibility to your findings and future presentations of your case study. Clients can provide statistics about usage of a new tool or product and participants can provide photos and quotes that show evidence of findings that may support the case.
Step 2 – Collect and analyze all applicable data, including documents, archival records, observations and artifacts.
- Organize all of your data in the same place to ensure easy access to information and materials while writing the case study.
- You can’t include it all. So, you need to think about how to sort through it, take out the excess, and arrange it so that the situation at the case site will be understandable to your readers. Before you can do this, you have to put all the information together where you can see it and analyze what is going on.
Step 3 – Formulate the problem in one or two sentences.
- As you go through your data, think about how you can put what you’ve found into a thesis-like statement. What patterns have your subjects brought to light?
- This will allow you to concentrate on what material is the most important. You’re bound to receive information from participants that should be included, but solely on the periphery. Organize your material to mirror this.
PHASE IV – WRITING YOUR CASE
Step 1 – Develop and write your case study using the data collected throughout the research, interviewing and analysis processes.
- Include at least four sections in your case study: an introduction, background information explaining why the case study was created, presentation of findings and a conclusion which clearly presents all of the data and references.
- The introduction should very clearly set the stage. In a detective story, the crime happens right at the beginning and the detective has to put together the information to solve it for the rest of the story. In a case, you can start by raising a question. You could quote someone you interviewed.
- Make sure to include background information on your study site, why your interviewees are a good sample, and what makes your problem pressing to give your audience a panoramic view of the issue. After you’ve clearly stated the problem at hand, of course. Include photos or a video if it would benefit your work to be persuasive and personalized.
- After the reader has all the knowledge needed to understand the problem, present your data. Include customer quotes and data (percentages, awards and findings) if possible to add a personal touch and more credibility to the case presented. Describe for the reader what you learned in your interviews about the problem at this site, how it developed, what solutions have already been proposed and/or tried, and feelings and thoughts of those working or visiting there. You may have to do calculations or extra research yourself to back up any claims.
- At the end of your analysis, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving the case itself. You may find referring to some interviewees’ statements will do the alluding for you. Let the reader leave with a full grasp of the problem, but trying to come up with their own desire to change it. Feel free to leave the reader with a question, forcing them to think for themselves. If you have written a good case, they will have enough information to understand the situation and have a lively class discussion.
Step 2 – Add references and appendices (if any).
- Just like you would in any other paper, reference your sources. That’s why you got credible ones in the first place. And if you have any information that relates to the study but would have interrupted the flow of the body, include it now.
- You may have terms that would be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, include it in the appendix or in a Note for the Instructor.
Step 3 – Make additions and deletions.
- As your work is forming, you’ll notice that it may morph into an object you didn’t otherwise expect. If it does so, make additions and deletions as needed. You may find that information you once thought pertinent is no longer. Or vice versa.
- Go over your study section by section, but also as a whole. Each data point needs to fit into both it’s place and the entirety of the work. If you can’t find an appropriate place for something, stick it in the appendix.
Step 4 – Edit and proofread your work.
- Now that your paper is formulated, look for minute revisions. As always, correct any grammar, spelling and punctuation errors, but also keep an eye out for flow and transition. Is everything placed and worded as efficiently as possible?
- Have someone else proofread, too. Your mind may have become oblivious to the errors it has seen 100 times. Another set of eyes may also notice content that has been left open-ended or is otherwise confusing.
Tips If you are developing many case studies for the same purpose using the same general subjects, use a uniform template and/or design. • Be sure to ask open-ended questions while conducting interviews to foster a discussion. • Ask case study participants for permission to use their names and information as sources and protect their anonymity if they choose not to disclose their participation. • Ask for permission to contact case study participants as you develop the written case study. You may discover that you need additional information as you analyze all data.
- http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/casestudy/pop2a.cfm Colorado State University Case Study writing guides
- http://www.hoffmanmarcom.com/casestudy/howtowrite.php Hoffman Marketing and Communications case study overview
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