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Apa quick citation guide.

  • In-text Citation
  • Citing Generative AI
  • Citing Web Pages and Social Media
  • Citing Articles
  • Citing Books
  • Citing Business Reports
  • Other Formats
  • APA Style Quiz

Using In-text Citation

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1). More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al., 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech.   Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.

Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech.  Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 23 (4), 245-259.

Thomas, H. K. (2004).  Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech  (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Citing Web Pages In Text

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author.

For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). For more information on citations for sources with no date or other missing information see the page on missing reference information on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page. 

Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.

Web page with author:

In-text citation

Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash, 2019).

Reference entry

Asmelash, L. (2019, August 14). Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/health/social-media-mental-health-trnd/index.html

Web page with organizational author:

More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression (World Health Organization, 2018).

World Health Organization. (2018, March 22).  Depression . https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression

Web page with no date:

Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaste r. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx

General Guidelines

In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.

Author's name in parentheses:

One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).

Author's name part of narrative:

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.

Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)

Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)

Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)

One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).

Note:  For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:

This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by Multiple Authors

APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation .

Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.

One author: (Field, 2005)

Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)

Three or more authors:   (Tremblay et al., 2010)

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Cite Sources

Create citations for free.

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You’ve probably heard your teacher or professor talk about the importance of including citations in your research papers. But what exactly are citations? Why are they so important, and what are the different types? Read on for citation basics.

Here’s a table of contents for this guide:  

What is a Citation?

Citation examples, why do we have citations.

  • Where Do We Have Citations?
  • When Do I Make Citations?

Common Mistakes

5 tips for making the perfect citation, troubleshooting.

To begin, let’s examine what a citation actually is. A citation is how you let your readers know that you used information from outside sources in your work. It also describes those sources, and provides information that allows the reader to track them down. This information could be the author’s name, the publication date, or page numbers. The exact information included in the citation depends on the citation style you are using. Please see the citation manual for your chosen style for more specifics on how to make your citations in that style. Popular styles include MLA formatting , Chicago style, and APA style.

  • How to Cite Google Images
  • How to Cite Netflix
  • How to Cite a PDF
  • How to Cite Statistics
  • How to Cite a Song
  • How to Cite a Poem
  • How to Cite a YouTube Video
  • How to Cite a Podcast
  • How to Cite a Book
  • How to Cite an Inscription
  • How to Cite a Quote

Having to write citations may seem like another boring step in the paper writing process. However, correctly citing sources in your research projects will ensure that you receive a better grade and create something that uniquely contributes to the subject area you are studying.

It doesn’t matter if you use MLA formatting , APA formatting, or any other citation style. Citing sources is something you should always do.

Here are just a few reasons why it is important for you to cite sources in your work:

Citations Provide Hard Evidence of Your Thesis/Ideas

Citing sources that back up your claim, otherwise known as your thesis statement, creates credibility for you as a researcher. It also opens up room for fact-checking and further research.

  • Bonus points : If you can, find a way to cite a few sources that have the converse opinion or idea, and then demonstrate to the reader why you believe that viewpoint is wrong while backing up your claim up with sources. If you can do this, you are well on their way to winning over the reader to your side.
  • Pro tip: Having many citations from a wide variety of sources related to your thesis indicates to your professor that you are working on a well-researched and respected subject.

Citations Give Credit to the Right People

Citing sources ensures that your reader or teacher can differentiate your original thoughts from the ideas in your sources and of other researchers in your subject area. This ensures that the sources you use receive proper credit for the author’s work, and that as the student, you receive deserved recognition for your unique contributions to the topic. Citations serve as a natural way to place your work within in the broader context of a subject area, and are an easy way for your teacher or professor to gauge your commitment to the project at hand. Going above and beyond in your work is always a good idea!

Citations Promote Originality and Prevent Plagiarism

The point of research projects is not to regurgitate information that can already be found elsewhere. We have Google for that! What your project should aim to do is promote an original idea or put a spin on an existing idea, and use credible sources to promote that idea. Copying or directly referencing a source without proper citations can lead to not only a poor grade, but accusations of academic dishonesty. By backing up your ideas with credible sources, you can easily avoid the trap of plagiarism, and promote further research on their topic. To help people find your unique perspective on your topic and create consistency throughout your work, it is always a good idea to use a specific, standardized citation style, such as APA format or MLA format.

Where Do We Have Citations, and What are the Types of Citations?

Citations typically can be found in two places: at the end of a paper in a bibliography or reference list, and within the text. The latter, sometimes called “in-text” citations, usually consist of a few details about the source, and are generally written in parenthesis at the end of the sentence where you referenced the source.

When Scout meets Boo Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird, she realizes that his reputation does not match his true character (Lee 85).

The citation in the reference list or bibliography corresponds with the in-text citation, and provides more holistic information about the source that you are citing. Publication information is included, as well as a list of all contributors to the source.

Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Perennial Modern Classics, 2006.

Note that each citation style has its own formatting rules regarding in-text and bibliographic citations. An APA citation will have similar information but look different from an MLA citation . Consult the style manual of your chosen citation style for more information.

When Should I Make Citations?

You should make a citation for a source whenever you:

● Directly quote a source ● Paraphrase information from a source ● Use an idea that is expressed in another source ● Make a specific reference to the work of another person

Let’s have a moment of silence for anyone out there who just received a graded paper filled with those dreaded red marks. Ugh. Nothing is worse than spending hours and hours pouring your heart and soul into a research paper, only to receive a failing grade or an accusation of plagiarism (gasp!) due to incorrect citations. It’s tough enough finding quality resources, analyzing them, and writing a high quality paper, but to receive marks off for incorrect citing totally crushes the soul.

We know there are so many rules to follow when it comes to citing sources. We’re here to highlight some of the most common citation mistakes students and scholars make when developing their research projects. Check out our top 5 below. Perhaps you’ll recognize a mistake or two you’ve been making in your own work.

If you’re looking for some extra help or guidance, check out the Citation Machine plagiarism and grammar checker. Write your paper, pop it into our “smart proofreader” and watch the magic happen. We’ll provide suggestions for citations and grammar edits so you can worry less about those dreaded red marks and more on your learning. Try it out now!

1. Forgetting to include in-text and parenthetical citations

You’ve found the perfect piece of information to include in your paper. Cool! As you’ve learned throughout school, you need to include a citation for that source in your bibliography or works cited list. Don’t forget to also include an in-text or parenthetical citation in the body of your project.

>Remember, every time outside information is added into a paper, you need to provide the reader with a glimpse as to where that information came from. You can do this with an in-text or parenthetical citation, which includes the author’s name in the sentence or directly after it, in parentheses. Depending on the citation style, you may also need to include the page number or year the source was published.

Here’s an example of how an MLA in-text citation could look in an assignment:

Stockett describes Celia as, “probably ten or fifteen years younger than me, twenty-two, twenty-three, and she’s real pretty” (37).

This excerpt is taken from page 37 in Kathryn Stockett’s book, The Help . In the works cited page at the end of the paper, the reader is provided with a full citation that shares the title of the book, the publisher, the year it was published, and possibly some other key pieces of information, depending on the citation style.

Every piece of information added into a paper needs two citations: a brief one in the body of the project and the full citation on the final page. Bam!

2. Period placement gone wrong

Inside? Outside? Outside and inside? It can be tricky to determine where to place those pesky little periods when including parenthetical citations.

For the majority of citation styles, the period is placed on the outside of the parentheses. Here’s a visual to help you out:

“It’s just that sometimes, our future is dictated by what we are, as opposed to what we want” (Sparks 59).

3. In-text and parenthetical citation overload

If you’re using the same reference over and over in one paragraph, it isn’t necessary to include an in-text or parenthetical citation after each sentence. Instead, save it for the end. The reader will be able to ascertain that all of the information from that single paragraph pertains to the individual in-text or parenthetical citation you’ve included.

4. Using the incorrect citation style or switching between two

Even though there are thousands (yes, thousands!) of citation styles available on Citation Machine, make sure to choose just one style for your project. Not sure whether to choose MLA formatting , APA , Chicago style format or another? Check to see if it’s included in the the assignment’s guidelines. Still not sure? Ask your teacher or school librarian. Whichever style you choose to roll with, make sure it’s consistent throughout the entire project. Remember, citations are included to help readers understand where information originated. If you choose to use various citation styles, it could cause some major confusion.

5. Problems with paraphrasing

A proper paraphrase involves taking someone else’s idea and rewriting it using your own words, in your own writing style. What it’s not is taking someone else’s idea and replacing the words with synonyms. Don’t be a synonym swapper. That’s plagiarism!

If you’re having a tough time trying to paraphrase another author’s words, try this out: Carefully read the text again. When you’re through, put it to the side, and think about what you just read. What was the author’s message? Now, rewrite it, using your own words and writing style. Remember to add an in-text or parenthetical citation at the end of the paraphrase and include the full citation in the works cited or reference page.

When you’re in a rush to meet a deadline and hand in your paper ASAP, it can be all too easy to make a mistake that can cost you big time. Citations are an often-overlooked component of a research paper that, when done correctly, can help you get your best grade yet. So how can you be sure that your citations are helping you achieve success? Here are some tips to take your research paper to the next level.

1. Include In-text or Parenthetical Citations When Paraphrasing

It can be tempting to just re-write a sentence from a source to include in your paper. But neglecting inclusion of a parenthetical, or in-text citation can lead to accusations of plagiarism. Being accused of committing plagiarism can not only impact your grade, but can put your enrollment in jeopardy as well. To avoid making this error, be sure to paraphrase carefully, and include a parenthetical or in-text citation in your paper each time you reference an outside source.

2. Periods (Almost) Always Go After the Parenthesis

Something as minor as an incorrectly placed period after a reference can lead to losing major points on your paper. In nearly every citation style with parenthetical citations, the period comes after the parenthesis, not before. Here is an example of a correctly placed period after a reference in APA format :

(Smith, 2005).

3. Be Consistent with Your Citation Style

Some classes require you use MLA format , while others require APA, while still others require Chicago Manual of Style . These specifications can be difficult to keep track of, but being consistent with your style is perhaps the easiest thing you can do to make sure you have well written citations. Double-checking your citations at the end of your paper before handing it in can lead to good last minute improvements.

4. All In-text and Parenthetical Citations Should Correspond with a Reference List Entry

In-text and parenthetical citations can be done while you are writing your paper, and are included each time you include information from an outside source. It is important to remember, however, that each time you do this, you should bear in mind that at the end of your paper in the works cited, bibliography, reference list, etc., there should be a corresponding longer reference to that same source that matches the in-text or parenthetical reference. When you are finished making your in-text and parenthetical references, use them to make a list of full citations you will need to include at the end of your paper.

5. Cite Properly, Not in Excess

While it is important to include citations in your paper, you shouldn’t be including them after each and every sentence you write. The important thing to remember is to cite only if you are including information from an outside source. This information should only be included if you feel that it backs up your claim effectively enough to the point where another researcher could potentially find that source and identify it as being related to your argument. If all the information in one paragraph you write refers to the same source, you only need to include one in-text or parenthetical citation in that paragraph, not after each individual sentence.

Solution #1: Identifying where to place a period in an in-text citation

1. If the in-text citation is at the end of the sentence or quotation, place a period after the citation (outside the parenthesis).

APA examples:

The results of Singh’s (2021) experiment were inconclusive (p. 42).

“The origin of the two variables could not be determined” (Singh, 2021, p. 42).

MLA examples:

The results of Singh’s experiment were inconclusive (42).

“The origin of the two variables could not be determined” (Singh 42).

2. Always use periods after the phrase “et al.”.

As Gregory Cheffsworth, et al. (2021) suggest, “sour cream can be used as a milk substitute whenever one is low on ingredients and willingness to go to the store” (p. 12).

“Sour cream can be used as a milk substitute whenever one is low on ingredients and willingness to go to the store” (Cheffsworth et al., 2021, p. 12).

As Gregory Cheffsworth, et al. suggest, “sour cream can be used as a milk substitute whenever one is low on ingredients and willingness to go to the store” (p. 12).

“Sour cream can be used as a milk substitute whenever one is low on ingredients and willingness to go to the store” (Cheffsworth et al. 12).

3. Block quotations in APA and MLA place the citation after the period.

A block quotation in APA is a quotation that is longer than forty words. The entire block quotations are indented by 0.5-inches.

            I wanted to make a casserole, but I soon realized that I did not have milk. However, as Gregory Cheffsworth, et al. (2021) suggest,

“Sour cream can be used as a milk substitute whenever one is low on ingredients and willingness to go to the store but, when one encounters this situation, they must be prepared to adapt to the differences in flavor profiles by incorporating new spices.” (p. 12)

In MLA, if the quotation is longer than four lines, use a block quotation by indenting the entire paragraph 0.5-inches.

MLA example:

            I wanted to make a casserole, but I soon realized that I did not have milk. However, as Gregory Cheffsworth, et al. suggest,

Sour cream can be used as a milk substitute whenever one is low on ingredients and willingness to go to the store but, when one encounters this situation, they must be prepared to adapt to the differences in flavor profiles by incorporating new spices. Depending on the selections, the sour cream’s natural taste can be emphasized or completely neutralized. As a result, one should not be afraid of the “sour” in sour cream. (12)

Solution #2: How to choose which citation style to use

  • First, consult your syllabus, rubric, or writing guidelines. Most often, the expected citation style will be listed. If it is not, ask your teacher or the publication if they have a style preference.
  • Use MLA style if you are writing within the humanities. This includes English literature, language, history, religion, and the arts.
  • Use APA style if you are writing on the sciences, which includes subjects such as geology, education, or psychology.
  • Use Chicago style if you are writing for business, history, or the fine arts.
  • Note that some scientific genres require their own specific citation guide outside of these three widely used guides. For example, computer science frequently uses the IEEE citation guide.
  • Look at sample papers or journal articles to see what is typically used.
  • If all else fails, go to a library or your school’s writing center and ask for help.

Solution #3 When and how to create a direct quote versus a paraphrased citation

  • For example, if you chose to directly quote information because the wittiness of an original excerpt is meaningful to your paper and is altered as a paraphrase.
  • For example, when the quoted material is short compared to the rest of the sentence and does not add a significant amount of information. Use a paraphrase instead.
  • Be aware that writing a direct quote without explaining it or further relating it to your topic can give the impression that you do not understand the information and are simply regurgitating the information.
  • Avoid overusing direct quotes. Ideally, a paper is mostly written using your own words and thoughts.
  • Use a paraphrase if you truly understand the idea/information and you can effectively relay the message in your own words.
  • A paraphrase is also useful if you’re trying to synthesize a long quote or passage into a shorter passage.
  • Before or after the paraphrase, you will need to discuss the information’s significance to your argument or paper.
  • If you find that your paragraph is following the same word structure as the original statement, consider using a direct quote or consider rephrasing the sentence.
  • One more reminder: Include an in-text citation to indicate that the original idea comes from another source.

Example of a direct quote:

            I wanted to make a casserole, but I soon realized that I did not have milk. However, as Gregory Cheffsworth (2021) suggests, “sour cream can be used as a milk substitute whenever one is low on ingredients and willingness to go to the store” (p. 47).

Example of a paraphrased citation:

            I wanted to make a casserole, but I soon realized that I did not have milk. However, I may be able to use sour cream instead of milk (Cheffsworth, 2021).

Finished with your citations and paper? Check out Citation Machine’s handy paper checker ! It can help you spot errors and polish your paper. There’s also a free  grammar guides library where you can learn what is a verb , an adjective definition , relative pronoun examples , and other grammar-related topics.

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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most frequently used within the social sciences, in order to cite various sources. This APA Citation Guide provides the general format for in-text citations and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed.

In APA style, two citations are used to cite a source:

  • A short citation used in the text (called the in-text citation ).
  • A full citation (called the reference ) in the reference list at the end of a paper.

The in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The in-text citation lets the reader know that the information came from the cited source. The reference list entry provides complete details of a source and is shown at the end of a document.

In order to properly cite a source in APA style, you must have both citation types in your paper. Every in-text citation has a reference list entry. Every reference list entry has at least one (maybe more) corresponding in-text citation.

In-text citations

The basic elements needed for an in-text citation are the author’s surname and the publication year . Sometimes, page numbers are also included, especially when quotes are mentioned in the text. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a narrative citation or a parenthetical citation.

Narrative citations are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, narrative citations use the author’s name in the text and the publication year is enclosed in parenthesis after the name. An example of a narrative citation for one author is given below:

Barbarin (2013) examined socioemotional learning in African boys.

Parenthetical

Parenthetical citations add the author’s name and the publication year at the end of the sentence in parenthesis. An example of a parenthetical citation is given below:

Inhibition and working memory in young children were studied extensively (Aase, 2014).

When are page numbers are included?

Page numbers are referred to within in-text citations when quotes are used. Examples of both narrative citations and parenthetical citations are given below.

Ahmed (2004, p. 44)

Ahmed (2004, pp. 53–56)

Parenthetical:

(Ahmed, 2004, p. 44)

(Ahmed, 2004, pp. 53–56)

Examples of in-text citations

Here are a few examples of in-text citations for a different number of authors:

Use the surname of the author in in-text citations. Use a comma before the publication year in parenthetical citations.

Narrative: 

Bucher (2018)

Parenthetical: 

(Bucher, 2018)

Two authors

Separate the author surnames with an “and” in narrative citations. Use an ampersand symbol (&) in parenthetical citations.

Popescu and Pennacchiotti (2010)

(Popescu & Pennacchiotti, 2010)

Three or more authors

Use the first author surname name followed by et al.

van Dijck et al. (2018)

(van Dijck et al., 2018)

Group author

Treat the group author similar to how you would treat author names.

Auger Collaboration (2003)

(Auger Collaboration, 2018)

If there is no author for the source, use the source title in place of the author’s name. In general, sources with no author appear as parenthetical citations.

When you add such in-text citations, you will either italicize the text or place it in quotations. If the source title is italicized in the reference list entry, italicize the title in the in-text citation. If the title is not italicized, place it in quotation marks.

Parenthetical, book:

( Nothing here , 1997)

Parenthetical, journal article:

(“Examination of parrotfish impact on coral reefs,” 2018)

Reference list entries

Reference list entries are also called full citations. There are four main details that most reference list entries have:

  • The author field.
  • The publication year.
  • The title of the work ( italicized or in “quotation marks”).
  • The source from where the reference can be obtained (e.g., URL, DOI, etc.).

Depending on the source type, you will also need additional details like volume number, publication title, contributors, medium, etc.

Examples of reference list entries

Below are a few examples of different types of reference entries along with their templates. The examples given are for one author. Note that “F” and “M” in the templates denote the first and the middle initials of an author’s name.

The title of the book is set in italics and sentence case.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the book . Publisher.

Ahmed, S. (2014). The cultural politics of emotion . Edinburgh University Press.

Journal article

The title of the article is in sentence case. The first word of a subtitle is capitalized. The journal title and the volume number are set in italics. If an article has a DOI it should always be included. Use “https://doi.org/” before the DOI. If there is no DOI for an online journal, include the URL instead. Do not use a period after the DOI or URL.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. URL or DOI

Collins, R. (2004). Rituals of solidarity and security in the wake of terrorist attack. Sociological Theory, 22 (1), 53–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2004.00204.x

Newspaper or magazine article

Newspaper and magazine articles take the same style. The title of the article is in plain text and sentence case; the title of the newspaper or the magazine is set in italics. Follow the format given in the template and example for setting the date, month, and year.

Surname, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper or Magazine . URL

TNN. (2021, July 18). Parents have a habit of comparing kids to others but you don’t need to. The Times of India . https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com//home/sunday-times/parents-have-a-habit-of-comparing-kids-to-others-but-you-dont-need-to/articleshow/84507857.cms

The webpage title is in plain text, while the Website name is set in italics. Follow the format given in the template and example for setting the date, month, year, and URL.

Author or Organization Name. (Year, Month Day of Publication ). Webpage title. Title of the Website. URL

Lamberth, H. (2021, August 12). Binge drinking is problem drinking: How to get back in control. PSYCOM . https://www.psycom.net/binge-drinking-problem-drinking

YouTube video

The video title is set in sentence case and italicized. The first word after a colon is capitalized. The word “Video” is enclosed in brackets after the video title. This is followed followed by the word “YouTube.” Finally, the link is given. Note that a period is not given after the URL.

Uploader’s name, F. (Year, Month Day Published). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL

Ananta, P. (2021, February 21). APJ Abdul Kalam inspirational quotes [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjfL51RFL2k

Reference entries for different number of authors

The number of authors in the source decides how the author name(s) will be set in the references list. Here, you will see many journal references with different numbers of authors.

List the author name followed by the publication year.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range.

Spitka, T. (2017). Mediating among mediators: Building a consensus in multilateral interventions. International Negotiation, 23 , 1–30.

Separate the author names by an ampersand. Use a comma between the first author’s initial and the ampersand symbol.

Author Surname, F. M., & Author Surname, F. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. DOI or URL

Bernstein, B., & Solomon, J. (1999). Pedagogy, identity and the construction of a theory of symbolic control: Basil Bernstein questioned by Joseph Solomon. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20 (2), 265–279. https://doi:10.1080/01425699995443

When you add two organizations in the author field, do not use a comma before the ampersand.

Organization 1 & Organization 2. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. DOI or URL

American Psychological Association & American Psychological Society. (2020). Psychology of children. Journal of Child Psychology, 34 (23), 1–12.

3–20 authors

List all author names. Do not forget to insert an “ampersand” before the last author. The example given below is for three authors.

Author Surname, F. M., Author Surname, F. M., & Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. DOI or URL

Pyysiäinen, J., Halpin, D., & Guilfoyle, A. (2017). Neoliberal governance and ‘responsibilization’ of agents: Reassessing the mechanisms of responsibility-shift in neoliberal discursive environments. Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory, 18 (2), 215–235. https://doi:10.1080/1600910X.2017.1331858

More than 20 authors

List the names of the first 19 authors followed by an ellipsis. Add the final author name after the ellipsis but without the ampersand symbol before the last author name.

Author Surname1, F. M., Author Surname2, F. M., Author Surname3, F. M., Author Surname4, F. M., Author Surname5, F. M., Author Surname6, F. M., Author Surname7, F. M., Author Surname8, F. M., Author Surname9, F. M., Author Surname10, F. M., Author Surname11, F. M., Author Surname12, F. M., Author Surname13, F. M., Author Surname14, F. M., Author Surname15, F. M., Author Surname16, F. M., Author Surname17, F. M., Author Surname18, F. M.,  Author Surname19, F. M,¼ Last Author name, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. DOI or URL

Fox, J., Harper, D., Bird, A., Kindler, F. A., Feng, H.-G., Seng, A. L., Sevel, K., Ed, E., Nell, A., Ten, T., Elin, K. J., Thomas, A., Thendy, S., Fall, W., Fint, E., Gurdy, A. K., Dondy, D., Egert, E., Nanda, A. L., ¼ Long, G.  (2015). Pedagogising knowledge: Bernstein’s theory of the pedagogic device. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23 (4), 571–582.

For additional information on APA format, select from one of the source types below. For help creating APA citations, check out the BibMe APA citation generator.

Source Types:

  • How to cite a Book in APA
  • How to cite a Magazine in APA
  • How to cite a Newspaper in APA
  • How to cite a Website in APA
  • How to cite a Journal Article in APA
  • How to cite a Film in APA
  • How to cite an Interview in APA
  • How to cite a Lecture in APA
  • How to cite a TV Show / Radio Broadcast in APA
  • How to cite an Encyclopedia in APA
  • How to cite a Photograph in APA
  • APA 7 Updates

APA Format:

  • In-Text Citation Basics
  • Reference Page

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As per Section 8.17 from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , for any work that has three or more authors, the name of the first author and “et al.” should be used as in-text citation. The Latin phrase “et al” means “and others” and is used to reduce the citation length.

Example In-Text Citation Entry:

No stretch of reason can categorize cultural appropriation as imaginary (Rahim et al., 2020).

Sometimes, the same set of initial authors and the same publication year appear in a paper. In such rare circumstances, as per Section 8.18 of the APA manual, write out as many names as needed to differentiate between these similar references.

Example In-Text Citation Entries:

Miller, John, Reighstag et al. (2018)

Miller, John, Amudsen, et al. (2018)

As per Section 8.21 and Table 8.1 of the APA Publication Manual , a citation for a group author may be abbreviated in in-text citations. It is not compulsory to do so; however, if the group author is well known or if it appears at least thrice in the paper, then the name of the group may be abbreviated.

Parenthetical in-text citation template and example:

(Full Name of the Group [Abbreviation], year)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2018)

Whether it is a narrative or parenthetical in-text citation, the full name of the group should be mentioned in the first instance, along with the abbreviation.

Narrative in-text citation examples:

The American Psychological Association (APA, 2017) argues that… (first instance)

As per the APA (2017), it is standard practice that… (subsequent instances)

Fresno State Library

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APA (American Psychological Association) Style is most commonly used in the  social and behavioral sciences.

  • APA General Format The guidelines for paper format apply to both student assignments and manuscripts being submitted for publication to a journal. If you are using APA Style to create another kind of work (e.g., a website, conference poster, or PowerPoint presentation), you may need to format your work differently in order to optimize its presentation, for example, by using different line spacing and font sizes. Follow the guidelines of your institution or publisher to adapt APA Style formatting guidelines as needed.
  • In-text Citations In scholarly writing, it is essential to acknowledge how others contributed to your work. By following the principles of proper citation, writers ensure that readers understand their contribution in the context of the existing literature—how they are building on, critically examining, or otherwise engaging the work that has come before.
  • Reference List Check each reference carefully against the original publication to ensure information is accurate and complete. Accurately prepared references help establish your credibility as a careful researcher and writer. Consistency in reference formatting allows readers to focus on the content of your reference list, discerning both the types of works you consulted and the important reference elements (who, when, what, and where) with ease. When you present each reference in a consistent fashion, readers do not need to spend time determining how you organized the information. And when searching the literature yourself, you also save time and effort when reading reference lists in the works of others that are written in APA Style.
  • Sample Paper This page contains several sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style.
  • DOI Lookup: Crossref Search "Metadata". Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. We’re a not-for-profit membership organization that exists to make scholarly communications better.
  • Basics of APA Tutorial This tutorial is designed for writers new to APA Style. Learn the basics of seventh edition APA Style, including paper elements, format, and organization; academic writing style; grammar and usage; bias-free language; mechanics of style; tables and figures; in-text citations, paraphrasing, and quotations; and reference list format and order. The Basics of Seventh Edition APA Style tutorial will permanently stay on this site for free.

APA Style from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

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A Quick Guide to Referencing | Cite Your Sources Correctly

Referencing means acknowledging the sources you have used in your writing. Including references helps you support your claims and ensures that you avoid plagiarism .

There are many referencing styles, but they usually consist of two things:

  • A citation wherever you refer to a source in your text.
  • A reference list or bibliography at the end listing full details of all your sources.

The most common method of referencing in UK universities is Harvard style , which uses author-date citations in the text. Our free Harvard Reference Generator automatically creates accurate references in this style.

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Referencing styles, citing your sources with in-text citations, creating your reference list or bibliography, harvard referencing examples, frequently asked questions about referencing.

Each referencing style has different rules for presenting source information. For in-text citations, some use footnotes or endnotes , while others include the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets in the text.

The reference list or bibliography is presented differently in each style, with different rules for things like capitalisation, italics, and quotation marks in references.

Your university will usually tell you which referencing style to use; they may even have their own unique style. Always follow your university’s guidelines, and ask your tutor if you are unsure. The most common styles are summarised below.

Harvard referencing, the most commonly used style at UK universities, uses author–date in-text citations corresponding to an alphabetical bibliography or reference list at the end.

Harvard Referencing Guide

Vancouver referencing, used in biomedicine and other sciences, uses reference numbers in the text corresponding to a numbered reference list at the end.

Vancouver Referencing Guide

APA referencing, used in the social and behavioural sciences, uses author–date in-text citations corresponding to an alphabetical reference list at the end.

APA Referencing Guide APA Reference Generator

MHRA referencing, used in the humanities, uses footnotes in the text with source information, in addition to an alphabetised bibliography at the end.

MHRA Referencing Guide

OSCOLA referencing, used in law, uses footnotes in the text with source information, and an alphabetical bibliography at the end in longer texts.

OSCOLA Referencing Guide

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In-text citations should be used whenever you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source (e.g. a book, article, image, website, or video).

Quoting and paraphrasing

Quoting is when you directly copy some text from a source and enclose it in quotation marks to indicate that it is not your own writing.

Paraphrasing is when you rephrase the original source into your own words. In this case, you don’t use quotation marks, but you still need to include a citation.

In most referencing styles, page numbers are included when you’re quoting or paraphrasing a particular passage. If you are referring to the text as a whole, no page number is needed.

In-text citations

In-text citations are quick references to your sources. In Harvard referencing, you use the author’s surname and the date of publication in brackets.

Up to three authors are included in a Harvard in-text citation. If the source has more than three authors, include the first author followed by ‘ et al. ‘

The point of these citations is to direct your reader to the alphabetised reference list, where you give full information about each source. For example, to find the source cited above, the reader would look under ‘J’ in your reference list to find the title and publication details of the source.

Placement of in-text citations

In-text citations should be placed directly after the quotation or information they refer to, usually before a comma or full stop. If a sentence is supported by multiple sources, you can combine them in one set of brackets, separated by a semicolon.

If you mention the author’s name in the text already, you don’t include it in the citation, and you can place the citation immediately after the name.

  • Another researcher warns that the results of this method are ‘inconsistent’ (Singh, 2018, p. 13) .
  • Previous research has frequently illustrated the pitfalls of this method (Singh, 2018; Jones, 2016) .
  • Singh (2018, p. 13) warns that the results of this method are ‘inconsistent’.

The terms ‘bibliography’ and ‘reference list’ are sometimes used interchangeably. Both refer to a list that contains full information on all the sources cited in your text. Sometimes ‘bibliography’ is used to mean a more extensive list, also containing sources that you consulted but did not cite in the text.

A reference list or bibliography is usually mandatory, since in-text citations typically don’t provide full source information. For styles that already include full source information in footnotes (e.g. OSCOLA and Chicago Style ), the bibliography is optional, although your university may still require you to include one.

Format of the reference list

Reference lists are usually alphabetised by authors’ last names. Each entry in the list appears on a new line, and a hanging indent is applied if an entry extends onto multiple lines.

Harvard reference list example

Different source information is included for different source types. Each style provides detailed guidelines for exactly what information should be included and how it should be presented.

Below are some examples of reference list entries for common source types in Harvard style.

  • Chapter of a book
  • Journal article

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Your university should tell you which referencing style to follow. If you’re unsure, check with a supervisor. Commonly used styles include:

  • Harvard referencing , the most commonly used style in UK universities.
  • MHRA , used in humanities subjects.
  • APA , used in the social sciences.
  • Vancouver , used in biomedicine.
  • OSCOLA , used in law.

Your university may have its own referencing style guide.

If you are allowed to choose which style to follow, we recommend Harvard referencing, as it is a straightforward and widely used style.

References should be included in your text whenever you use words, ideas, or information from a source. A source can be anything from a book or journal article to a website or YouTube video.

If you don’t acknowledge your sources, you can get in trouble for plagiarism .

To avoid plagiarism , always include a reference when you use words, ideas or information from a source. This shows that you are not trying to pass the work of others off as your own.

You must also properly quote or paraphrase the source. If you’re not sure whether you’ve done this correctly, you can use the Scribbr Plagiarism Checker to find and correct any mistakes.

Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.

Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.

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  • How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples

How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples

Published on March 5, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on January 17, 2024.

To cite a page from a website, you need a short in-text citation and a corresponding reference stating the author’s name, the date of publication, the title of the page, the website name, and the URL.

This information is presented differently in different citation styles. APA , MLA , and Chicago are the most commonly used styles.

Use the interactive example generator below to explore APA and MLA website citations.

Note that the format is slightly different for citing YouTube and other online video platforms, or for citing an image .

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Citing a website in mla style, citing a website in apa style, citing a website in chicago style, frequently asked questions about citations.

An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author’s name , the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL.

The in-text citation usually just lists the author’s name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to locate the specific passage. Don’t use paragraph numbers unless they’re specifically numbered on the page.

The same format is used for blog posts and online articles from newspapers and magazines.

You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to generate your website citations.

Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr

Citing a whole website.

When you cite an entire website rather than a specific page, include the author if one can be identified for the whole site (e.g. for a single-authored blog). Otherwise, just start with the site name.

List the copyright date displayed on the site; if there isn’t one, provide an access date after the URL.

Webpages with no author or date

When no author is listed, cite the organization as author only if it differs from the website name.

If the organization name is also the website name, start the Works Cited entry with the title instead, and use a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation.

When no publication date is listed, leave it out and include an access date at the end instead.

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An APA reference for a webpage lists the author’s last name and initials, the full date of publication, the title of the page (in italics), the website name (in plain text), and the URL.

The in-text citation lists the author’s last name and the year. If it’s a long page, you may include a locator to identify the quote or paraphrase (e.g. a paragraph number and/or section title).

Note that a general reference to an entire website doesn’t require a citation in APA Style; just include the URL in parentheses after you mention the site.

You can also use our free APA Citation Generator to create your webpage citations. Search for a URL to retrieve the details.

Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr

Blog posts and online articles.

Blog posts follow a slightly different format: the title of the post is not italicized, and the name of the blog is.

The same format is used for online newspaper and magazine articles—but not for articles from news sites like Reuters and BBC News (see the previous example).

When a page has no author specified, list the name of the organization that created it instead (and omit it later if it’s the same as the website name).

When it doesn’t list a date of publication, use “n.d.” in place of the date. You can also include an access date if the page seems likely to change over time.

In Chicago notes and bibliography style, footnotes are used to cite sources. They refer to a bibliography at the end that lists all your sources in full.

A Chicago bibliography entry for a website lists the author’s name, the page title (in quotation marks), the website name, the publication date, and the URL.

Chicago also has an alternative author-date citation style . Examples of website citations in this style can be found here .

For blog posts and online articles from newspapers, the name of the publication is italicized. For a blog post, you should also add the word “blog” in parentheses, unless it’s already part of the blog’s name.

When a web source doesn’t list an author , you can usually begin your bibliography entry and short note with the name of the organization responsible. Don’t repeat it later if it’s also the name of the website. A full note should begin with the title instead.

When no publication or revision date is shown, include an access date instead in your bibliography entry.

The main elements included in website citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author, the date of publication, the page title, the website name, and the URL. The information is presented differently in each style.

In APA , MLA , and Chicago style citations for sources that don’t list a specific author (e.g. many websites ), you can usually list the organization responsible for the source as the author.

If the organization is the same as the website or publisher, you shouldn’t repeat it twice in your reference:

  • In APA and Chicago, omit the website or publisher name later in the reference.
  • In MLA, omit the author element at the start of the reference, and cite the source title instead.

If there’s no appropriate organization to list as author, you will usually have to begin the citation and reference entry with the title of the source instead.

When you want to cite a specific passage in a source without page numbers (e.g. an e-book or website ), all the main citation styles recommend using an alternate locator in your in-text citation . You might use a heading or chapter number, e.g. (Smith, 2016, ch. 1)

In APA Style , you can count the paragraph numbers in a text to identify a location by paragraph number. MLA and Chicago recommend that you only use paragraph numbers if they’re explicitly marked in the text.

For audiovisual sources (e.g. videos ), all styles recommend using a timestamp to show a specific point in the video when relevant.

Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.

  • APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
  • MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
  • Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.

Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.

The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.

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Caulfield, J. (2024, January 17). How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 22, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-website/

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Citing Sources: What are citations and why should I use them?

What is a citation.

Citations are a way of giving credit when certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again-- it provides an important roadmap to your research process. Whenever you use sources such as books, journals or websites in your research, you must give credit to the original author by citing the source. 

Why do researchers cite?

Scholarship is a conversation  and scholars use citations not only to  give credit  to original creators and thinkers, but also to  add strength and authority  to their own work.  By citing their sources, scholars are  placing their work in a specific context  to show where they “fit” within the larger conversation.  Citations are also a great way to  leave a trail  intended to help others who may want to explore the conversation or use the sources in their own work.

In short, citations

(1) give credit

(2) add strength and authority to your work

(3) place your work in a specific context

(4) leave a trail for other scholars

"Good citations should reveal your sources, not conceal them. They should honeslty reflect the research you conducted." (Lipson 4)

Lipson, Charles. "Why Cite?"  Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles--MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More . Chicago: U of Chicago, 2006. Print.

What does a citation look like?

Different subject disciplines call for citation information to be written in very specific order, capitalization, and punctuation. There are therefore many different style formats. Three popular citation formats are MLA Style (for humanities articles) and APA or Chicago (for social sciences articles).

MLA style (print journal article):  

Whisenant, Warren A. "How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX." Sex Roles Vol. 49.3 (2003): 179-182.

APA style (print journal article):

Whisenant, W. A. (2003) How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX. Sex Roles , 49 (3), 179-182.

Chicago style (print journal article):

Whisenant, Warren A. "How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX." Sex Roles 49, no. 3 (2003): 179-182.

No matter which style you use, all citations require the same basic information:

  • Author or Creator
  • Container (e.g., Journal or magazine, website, edited book)
  • Date of creation or publication
  • Publisher 

You are most likely to have easy access to all of your citation information when you find it in the first place. Take note of this information up front, and it will be much easier to cite it effectively later.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / MLA Citation Examples

MLA Citation Examples

Welcome to the EasyBib MLA Citation Guide! If you’ve landed on this page, you’re probably wondering what MLA citing is, or perhaps you need help creating an MLA citation or two. This page is fully stocked with the information you need to be an MLA citing machine.

While EasyBib isn’t officially affiliated with the Modern Language Association, we’ve included page numbers throughout this guide to demonstrate that the information on this page reflects the content from the official Handbook . Click here to learn more about the 9th edition of the handbook.

If you’re wondering, “What is MLA?” and are in need of some background information on the organization, take a peek at the Modern Language Association ’s site. You’ll find tons of handy information related to referencing and writing mechanics. 

Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:

What’s an MLA citation?

  • 3 or more authors

Organization authors

Using the EasyBib MLA Citation Generator

  • Edited book
  • Chapter in an edited book
  • E-book from the Internet
  • Online journal article
  • Print journal article
  • Online magazine
  • Print magazine
  • Online newspaper
  • Print newspaper
  • Online image
  • Print image
  • Images viewed in real life
  • Online video
  • Streamed show
  • Streamed music
  • Sheet music
  • Social media examples

Any time a piece of information from another source is added into your MLA style paper, you must create two citations, or references, to show the reader where the information originated. One reference is placed in the written text of the paper, and the other is placed at the end of the project.

The reference that is placed in the written text of the paper, called an in-text citation , comes immediately next to any borrowed information. It provides a glimpse for the reader to see who the original author is and where the information was found. When creating in-text citations, it’s also important to know how to format page numbers in MLA .

Here’s an MLA example:

Lark knows how to handle life on the river: “I try to count the seconds before I hear the thunder, so I know how far the storm is, but I’m too rattled” (Wingate 12).

Check out the full EasyBib MLA in-text & parenthetical citations guide to learn more about styling these types of references.

The other type of reference, which we’ll call a full reference , is placed at the end of the project. It includes enough information about the source so the reader can locate the source themselves, if they choose to do so, whether online or at their library.

Here’s the full reference, which corresponds to the in-text citation above:

Wingate, Lisa. Before We Were Yours . Random House, 2017.

Notice that the beginning of the reference in the text, Wingate, corresponds with the first word in the full reference. This is very important! It allows for the reader to find the full reference on the MLA works cited page.

Wondering if you can create MLA footnotes instead? You sure can! However, in this style, it’s more common to use references in the text of your paper.

If it’s help with an APA in-text citation or APA parenthetical citation you’re after, you’re in luck! Our comprehensive guides are here for you!

Various types of styles

There are many different ways to style references, and following MLA’s guidelines are just one way to do so. Two other well-known and popular styles to structure references include APA and Chicago.

Your teacher probably told you which style to create your references in. If you were told to use a different style, such as APA or Chicago, here are some links to help you get started.

The EasyBib APA citations guide has everything you need to learn how to create references in this style. Or, if you’re looking for help with structuring the paper itself (spacing, font, margins, etc.), check out the EasyBib APA format page. If you need help with more styles , EasyBib always has your back, with thousands of styles available!

A Standard Formula

The great thing about MLA citations is that full references follow one standard formula. So, it doesn’t matter if you’re attempting to reference a book, newspaper article, or Facebook post, as almost every source type is structured the same way, following an MLA template.

Here’s a step-by-step guide that gives you the key to the secret sauce:

1. Who created the source?

Is your source written or created by an individual? If yes, place their name in reverse order, with a period at the end, like this:

Jackson, Michael.

If there are multiple individuals responsible for the work, place them in the order they’re shown on the source

Two Authors

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.

Owens, Michael, and Scott Abrahams.

Three or More Authors

According to page 112 of the Handbook , only include the first listed author’s name, in reverse order, followed by a comma, and omit all other names. Replace the additional names with the Latin phrase, et al.

Last Name, First Name, et al.

Preston, Rebekah, et al.

If an organization is responsible for the work, you may include the organization’s name. However, in many cases, an organization is listed as BOTH the author and publisher. When this is the case, you can leave the author out, start the citation with the source’s title, and include the organization name only as the publisher.

Dinosaur Facts . American Museum of Natural History, www.amnh.org/dinosaurs/dinosaur-facts.

2. What’s the title?

Sometimes there are two titles related to your source, and sometimes there’s only one.

If the source you’re referencing has two title parts, place the smaller part in quotation marks, followed by a period, and the larger part in italics, followed by a comma.

Think about the song, “Beat It,” by Michael Jackson. “Beat It” is the title of the song, but there’s another title too. The title of the album! The title of the album is Thriller.

Here’s how the two titles would be structured:

“Beat It.” Thriller ,

The album, Thriller , serves as the “container” for the song itself.

The term “ container ” is used extensively throughout the official guide. In addition to songs and albums, other types of titles and their containers can include:

  • “Web Page Articles.” Websites ,
  • “Book Chapters.” Titles of Books ,
  • “Journal Articles.” Titles of Journals ,

…plus many more!

To make things even more interesting, there are times when there’s more than one container! Think about an episode of a television show. The television series is the first container, but if you watched it on a streaming site, the streaming site would be the second container.

If there are two containers , the second one is added at the end of the reference.

“The Miseducation of Lisa Simpson.” Performances by John Legend, Chrissy Teigen, and Zach Woods. The Simpsons , season 31, episode 12, Fox Broadcasting, 16 Feb. 2020. Hulu , www.hulu.com/simpsons/miseducation.

Let’s break that down:

  • Container 2 : Hulu

There are times when two titles aren’t included in a reference. If, instead of referencing the song “Beat It,” you’re referencing the entire album, exclude the quotation marks. Only include the one title and place it in italics, without quotation marks.

Here’s how you would reference the entire album, rather than one song on the album:

Jackson, Michael. Thriller . Produced by Quincy Jones, Westlake Recording Studios, 1982.

For more on titles and containers, head to pages 134-145 of the official Handbook .

If you decide to use EasyBibs citation generator MLA creator, we’ll help you structure the titles and containers in just a few clicks!

3. Any other contributors?

If there are any other people, besides the author, who had a significant role, and you feel it would be helpful to include their name in the reference, this information is added after the title. Include their role and name in standard order, followed by a comma.

Produced by Quincy Jones,

For other types of sources, there may be other roles and individuals to highlight. Here are a few examples:

  • Performance by Sid Caesar,
  • Translated by Sarah Martin,
  • Narrated by Rita Williams-Garcia,

4. Are you referencing a specific version?

Perhaps there is a specific edition of a book, song version, or movie cut. Include this information next, followed by a comma.

Google Play Exclusive Edition,

Other examples could include:

  • Director’s cut,
  • Unedited ed.,
  • Instrumental version,

5. Got numbers?

Any numbers associated with the source, such as a volume and issue number, or episode number, are added next, followed by a comma.

For example, many journal articles have volume and issue numbers. Use vol. before the volume number and no. before the issue number.

vol. 2, no. 3,

Wondering what to exclude from your citations MLA paper? ISBN numbers! They’re never added into references.

6. Who published the source?

This information is added next in the reference, followed by a comma. Since the publisher listed is usually the formal name of a company or organization, use title case.

Random House,

Marvel Studios,

7. When was it published?

The date the source was published comes next, followed by a comma.

In the official Handbook , the references are displayed as Day Month Year. If the month is longer than 4 letters, abbreviate it.

4 Nov. 2019,

28 July 2015,

If you can’t find the source date, simply leave it out. Note: Some teachers want students to make a source with “no date” as “n.d.” If you’re unsure what your teacher wants, check in with them.

8. Where can you find the source?

The final component of the formula is the location.

  • If the source was found online, this should be a website address. Make sure to omit https:// from the front of the string.
  • It can be an actual location too, if the source is something you saw in a museum or elsewhere in real life.
  • Or, it can also be a page number or page range.
  • Always close out the reference with a period.

Now, let’s put all of the pieces together. Here’s what we come up with for our MLA citation example:

Jackson, Michael. “Beat It.” Thriller , produced by Quincy Jones, Google Play Exclusive Edition, Epic, 1982, play.google.com/store/music/album/Thriller?id=Bzs3hkvcyvinz5tkilucmmoqjhi&hl=en_US.

Example breakdown:

Some things to keep in mind:

1. It’s not necessary to include every piece to the puzzle. Only include the information that the reader would need in order to successfully locate the source themselves.

For example, in the Thriller example above, you’ll see there aren’t any specific numbers (besides the publication date) in the reference. Why? There aren’t any numbers associated with the source.

2. If you’re looking for help, the EasyBib MLA citation creator helps you develop your references. Give it a whirl! It’s free and easy to use! Nervous to try it out? Here’s a quick rundown on how to use it.

Reserve the precious time you have for researching and writing, rather than wrapping your head around MLA guidelines, rules, and structures. The EasyBib citing tool is here to help you easily create citations for all your papers and turn you into a citing, MLA machine!

Follow these steps:

  • Find your source. We have over 50 types of sources to choose from.
  • Our automatic generator (shown below) creates references using source data already available on the Internet. Simply type in a few key pieces of information about the source and click “Search.”
  • Our manual form creates your references based on the information you enter. Fill out the form and click “Complete Citation.”
  • The easy-to-follow directions guide you through the remainder of the process. Follow the steps on the screen and watch the magic happen in a few clicks and keystrokes!
  • Copy and paste your completed reference into your project or export it to your document.

The EasyBib MLA format generator isn’t all that’s available. There are also tons of other nifty features, all available on our homepage, including an MLA title page maker and an innovative plagiarism checker ! That’s not all, there are many other thorough guides to help you with your referencing needs. Check out the EasyBib APA reference page , plus many more!

MLA citing is easier when you have visuals and examples to take a peek at. That’s why we’ve put together a list of the most common source types that students and scholars reference. If you’re trying to reference a book, newspaper article, website, or tweet, you’ll find the structures you need to get on the right track.

Pro tip: Don’t leave your references for the last minute! In your MLA outline or notes, keep track of the sources you use. This will help make the entire process easier for you! Some instructors may even have you complete an MLA annotated bibliography before writing your paper so that you can cite, organize, and become familiar with your sources in advance.

Below are examples for these sources:

If, instead, you need help with referencing an APA book citation , the linked guide walks you through the process!

EDITED BOOK

This information is located on page 112-113 of the official Handbook .

CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK

E-book from the internet.

If you’re attempting to reference an e-book from an e-reader, such as a Nook or Kindle, use the EasyBib MLA citation generator. We’ll help you structure your e-book references in no time!

If you need more information on how to cite websites in MLA , check out the full-length EasyBib guide! Or, take the guesswork out of forming your references and try the EasyBib automatic MLA citation machine!

Need an APA citation website or help with another popular referencing style? EasyBib Plus may be exactly what you need.

ONLINE JOURNAL ARTICLE

To see an online journal example in action, check out the EasyBib MLA sample paper, which is discussed at the bottom of this guide. Also, don’t forget about the easy-to-use, EasyBib automatic generator. Stop typing into Google “citation maker MLA” and go to EasyBib.com instead!

PRINT JOURNAL ARTICLE

If it’s referencing an APA journal you’re after, click on the link for the informative EasyBib guide on the topic.

If you’re looking for an MLA citation maker to help you build your bibliography, try out the EasyBib MLA generator. Type in a few key pieces of information about your source and watch the magic happen!

ONLINE MAGAZINE

*In the above example, Natarajan’s article only sits on one page, so it’s unnecessary to include the page number in the reference in the text.

PRINT MAGAZINE

Print magazines are always fun to read, but know what else is a party? Brushing up on your grammar skills! Check out the thorough EasyBib grammar guides on adverb , determiner , and preposition pages!

ONLINE NEWSPAPER

*You do not need to include the city name in your citation if the city name is in the name of the newspaper or if it is a national or international newspaper.

**Since the above article is only on one page, it’s not necessary to include the page number in the text reference of your MLA style citation.

Need help? Use the EasyBib MLA citation machine, which guides you through the process of making newspaper references! Quit searching on Google for “how to MLA citation” and visit  EasyBib.com today!

PRINT NEWSPAPER

If your periodical article falls on nonconsecutive page numbers, add a plus sign after the first page number and omit the additional pages from any full references. Example: pp. B1+ (This information is located on page 193 in the official Handbook ). Don’t forget, the EasyBib citation machine MLA creator can help you structure all your citation information!

ONLINE IMAGE

If you’re still confused about referencing online images, give the EasyBib MLA format generator a whirl. In just a few clicks, you’ll have well-structured MLA citations!

PRINT IMAGE

If you’re looking to reference an image seen in a print book, use the structure below. Or, use the “Cartoon,” “Photo,” “Painting,” or “Map” forms found on the EasyBib MLA generator for citations.

In need of a citation machine MLA maker to help save some of your precious time? Try EasyBib’s generator. Head to the EasyBib homepage and start developing your references today!

IMAGE VIEWED IN REAL LIFE

If you viewed an image in real life, whether at a museum, on display in a building, or even on a billboard, this EasyBib MLA citation guide example includes the most common way to reference it.

ONLINE VIDEO

For the majority of online video references, the reference should start with the title of the video. The information about the account that uploaded the video should be included in the “Other Contributors” space.

For more on learning how to cite MLA timestamps, turn to page 250 in the official Handbook .

It’s common to see online videos featured in an annotated bibliography . Have a look at the useful guide to learn how to create one from scratch!

STREAMED SHOW

Streamed shows (sometimes called online or streamed “television shows”) are watched using a service such as Netflix, Hulu, Disney+, or another subscription streaming site.

If you accessed a streamed show through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[ Name of Service ] app” instead of including the URL.

After you’re through binging on your favorite shows, give yourself some brain fuel by taking a glance at the EasyBib grammar guides. Take your writing up a notch with the guides on interjection , conjunction , and verb pages!

STREAMED MUSIC

*If you accessed a streamed song through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[ Name of Service ] app” instead of including the URL.

Streamed music can be tricky to reference, especially with the wide variety of streaming services available on the web and through apps. Don’t worry, the EasyBib MLA citation maker can come in and save the day for you. Try it out now! To make it even easier, bookmark the EasyBib citation machine MLA maker for quick access!

SHEET MUSIC

*You can include the original composition date as supplemental information between the title and publisher. It may be helpful to include this information if the piece was composed much earlier than the sheet music you are citing or if the arrangement has significantly changed from the original.

SOCIAL MEDIA EXAMPLES

Notable individuals consistently share pictures, videos, and ideas on social media, which is why social media is often referenced in today’s research papers . If you’re looking to add a reference for Twitter, Facebook, Reddit, or Instagram in your MLA paper, check out the structures and examples below.

*When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.

If the tweet is composed of just an image or video, create a description for it and do not place it in quotation marks. For example:

DJ Snake. Video of studio controls with music playing. Twitter , 11 Feb. 2020, twitter.com/djsnake/status/1227267455095123968.

Odds are, you could spend hours scrolling through Twitter to catch up on the latest news and gossip. Why not spend some time scrolling through the EasyBib grammar guides instead? Check out these informative noun and adjective guides to help keep your writing in check!

Looking for other types of sources, such as government and archival documents? Here’s more info .

proper citation to a

Now that you’ve figured out how to style your references, the next step is structuring your written work according to this style’s guidelines. The thorough EasyBib MLA format guide provides you with the information you need to structure the font, MLA title page (or MLA cover page), paper margins, spacing, plus more! There’s even a sample MLA paper, too!

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Published April 9, 2020. Updated July 25, 2021.

Written by Michele Kirschenbaum. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and is the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Sample Paper
  • Works Cited
  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all MLA Examples

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It’s 100% free to create MLA citations. The EasyBib Citation Generator also supports 7,000+ other citation styles. These other styles—including APA, Chicago, and Harvard—are accessible for anyone with an EasyBib Plus subscription.

No matter what citation style you’re using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) the EasyBib Citation Generator can help you create the right bibliography quickly.

Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.

Creating an account is not a requirement for generating MLA citations. However, registering for an EasyBib account is free and an account is how you can save all the citation you create. This can help make it easier to manage your citations and bibliographies.

Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.

If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.

It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.

An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s name . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation.

Citation in prose

Citations in prose are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, citations in prose use the author’s full name when cited the first time in the text. Thereafter, only the surname is used. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of the first citation in prose for one author is given below:

Carol Fitzerald explains the picture of the area.

Parenthetical

Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is given below:

The picture of the area is explained (Fitzgerald).

When are other components included?

When you quote a specific line from the source, you can include a page number or a line number in in-text citations. Examples of both a citation in prose and a parenthetical citation are given below. Do not add “p.” or “pp.” before the page number(s).

Swan says, “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America is to be studied” (47).

Though some researchers claim that “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America is to be studied” (Swan 47).

In-text citations should be concise. Do not repeat author names in parentheses if the name is mentioned in the text (the citation in prose).

To cite a periodical such as a journal, magazine, or newspaper, in the text, the basic element needed is the author’s name . The publication year is not required for in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation. The example below shows how to cite a periodical in the text.

Citations in prose use the author’s full name when citing for the first time. Thereafter, only use the surname. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of a citation in prose for a periodical with one author is below:

First time: Kathy Goldstein explains the picture of the area.

Subsequent occurrences: Goldstein explains the picture of the area.

Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is below:

The picture of the area is explained (Goldstein).

An MLA citation generator is a tool that can help you easily create MLA formatted citations and works cited entries. You can try the EasyBib MLA citation generator at https://www.easybib.com/mla/source .

For some source types, only a single piece of information is needed in order to generate a citation. For example, the ISBN of a book, the DOI of a journal article, or the URL of a website. For other source types, a form will indicate what information is needed for the citation, and then automatically formats the citation.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

The MLA Handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it’s included in this list.

However, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA style.

Best Practices for Managing Online Sources

Because online information can change or disappear, it is always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup. You can also use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project's sources (though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted).

It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consult with each online source. MLA uses the phrase, “Accessed” to denote which date you accessed the web page when available or necessary. It is not required to do so, but it is encouraged (especially when there is no copyright date listed on a website).

Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA

Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and verify sources. However, MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.

Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.

Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “permalink,” which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.

Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation. Par. would be used for a single paragraph, while pars. would be used for a span of two or more paragraphs.

Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)

Here are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Not every web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible:

  • Author and/or editor names (if available); last names first.
  • "Article name in quotation marks."
  • Title of the website, project, or book in italics.
  • Any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
  • Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
  • Take note of any page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
  • DOI (if available, precede it with "https://doi.org/"), otherwise a URL (without the https://) or permalink.
  • Date you accessed the material (Date Accessed). While not required, saving this information it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.

Use the following format:

Author. "Title." Title of container (self contained if book) , Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). 2 nd container’s title , Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).

Citing an Entire Web Site

When citing an entire website, follow the same format as listed above, but include a compiler name if no single author is available.

Author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), DOI (preferred), otherwise include a URL or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site . Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites . The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory . Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.

Course or Department Websites

Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.

Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England . Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007.

English Department . Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Accessed 31 May 2015.

A Page on a Web Site

For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.

Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.”  eHow , www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

“ Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview. ”   WebMD , 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.

Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).

Silva, Paul J.  How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007.

If the e-book is formatted for a specific reader device or service, you can indicate this by treating this information the same way you would treat a physical book's edition number. Often, this will mean replacing "e-book" with "[App/Service] ed."

Machiavelli, Niccolo.  The Prince , translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018.

Note:  The MLA considers the term "e-book" to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book reader device (e.g., a Kindle) or a corresponding web application. These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book content from an ordinary webpage with a URL, use the "A Page on a Web Site" format above.

An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)

Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado , www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine . 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive , www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

If the work cited is available on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

Adams, Clifton R. “People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.

An Article in a Web Magazine

Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.

Bernstein, Mark. “ 10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. ”   A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites , 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal

For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, otherwise provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source.

Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article . Provide the URL and the date of access.

Wheelis, Mark. “ Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. ”   Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)

Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “ Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates. ”   Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library , https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)

Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom the message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization.

Kunka, Andrew. “ Re: Modernist Literature. ”  Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.

Neyhart, David. “ Re: Online Tutoring. ” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016.

A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.

Author or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site , Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek , 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.

Begin with the user's Twitter handle in place of the author’s name. Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary.

@tombrokaw. “ SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ”   Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.

@PurdueWLab. “ Spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open next week. ”   Twitter , 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 p.m., twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282.

A YouTube Video

Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube , uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.

A Comment on a Website or Article

List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time (listed on near the comment), and the URL.

Not Omniscient Enough. Comment on “ Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument Over Pasta. ”  ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050.

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😕 What is an MLA Citation Generator?

An MLA citation generator is a software tool designed to automatically create academic citations in the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format. The generator will take information such as document titles, author, and URLs as in input, and output fully formatted citations that can be inserted into the Works Cited page of an MLA-compliant academic paper.

The citations on a Works Cited page show the external sources that were used to write the main body of the academic paper, either directly as references and quotes, or indirectly as ideas.

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It is also important at this level to learn why it's critical to cite sources, not just how to cite them.

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Writing citations manually is time consuming and error prone. Automating this process with a citation generator is easy, straightforward, and gives accurate results. It's also easier to keep citations organized and in the correct order.

The Works Cited page contributes to the overall grade of a paper, so it is important to produce accurately formatted citations that follow the guidelines in the official MLA Handbook .

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It's super easy to create MLA style citations with our MLA Citation Generator. Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form.

The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!).

MyBib supports the following for MLA style:

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Computer Science > Computation and Language

Title: rocode: a dataset for measuring code intelligence from problem definitions in romanian.

Abstract: Recently, large language models (LLMs) have become increasingly powerful and have become capable of solving a plethora of tasks through proper instructions in natural language. However, the vast majority of testing suites assume that the instructions are written in English, the de facto prompting language. Code intelligence and problem solving still remain a difficult task, even for the most advanced LLMs. Currently, there are no datasets to measure the generalization power for code-generation models in a language other than English. In this work, we present RoCode, a competitive programming dataset, consisting of 2,642 problems written in Romanian, 11k solutions in C, C++ and Python and comprehensive testing suites for each problem. The purpose of RoCode is to provide a benchmark for evaluating the code intelligence of language models trained on Romanian / multilingual text as well as a fine-tuning set for pretrained Romanian models. Through our results and review of related works, we argue for the need to develop code models for languages other than English.

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  1. How to Cite Sources

    Knowledge Base Citing sources How to Cite Sources | Citation Generator & Quick Guide Citing your sources is essential in academic writing. Whenever you quote or paraphrase a source (such as a book, article, or webpage), you have to include a citation crediting the original author.

  2. How to Cite Sources

    How to Cite Sources 2.8 ( 300) Here is a complete list for how to cite sources. Most of these guides present citation guidance and examples in MLA, APA, and Chicago. If you're looking for general information on MLA or APA citations, the EasyBib Writing Center was designed for you!

  3. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats. Basic Rules Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the ...

  4. Basic principles of citation

    To cite a specific part of a source, provide an author-date citation for the work plus information about the specific part. Even when sources cannot be retrieved (e.g., because they are personal communications ), still credit them in the text (however, avoid using online sources that are no longer recoverable).

  5. How to Cite Sources in APA Citation Format

    In-text citations are citations within the main body of the text and refer to a direct quote or paraphrase. They correspond to a reference in the main reference list. These citations include the surname of the author and date of publication only. Using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form: Mitchell (2017) states… Or …

  6. Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

    For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).

  7. Citing Sources: How to Accurately Cite Sources

    Troubleshooting What is a Citation? To begin, let's examine what a citation actually is. A citation is how you let your readers know that you used information from outside sources in your work. It also describes those sources, and provides information that allows the reader to track them down.

  8. APA Citation Examples: How to cite anything in APA format

    ( 385) Cite in APA Automatically with BibMe Create APA Citations for Free ←Back to All Citation Guides APA (American Psychological Association) style is most frequently used within the social sciences, in order to cite various sources. This APA Citation Guide provides the general format for in-text citations and the reference page.

  9. In-text citations

    Date created: September 2019 APA Style provides guidelines to help writers determine the appropriate level of citation and how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism.

  10. APA 7th

    In-text Citations In scholarly writing, it is essential to acknowledge how others contributed to your work. By following the principles of proper citation, writers ensure that readers understand their contribution in the context of the existing literature—how they are building on, critically examining, or otherwise engaging the work that has come before.

  11. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    APA Citation Basics When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  12. A Quick Guide to Referencing

    Harvard. Vancouver. APA. MHRA. OSCOLA. Harvard referencing, the most commonly used style at UK universities, uses author-date in-text citations corresponding to an alphabetical bibliography or reference list at the end. In-text citation. Sources should always be cited properly (Pears and Shields, 2019). Reference list.

  13. How to Cite a Website

    To cite a page from a website, you need a short in-text citation and a corresponding reference stating the author's name, the date of publication, the title of the page, the website name, and the URL. This information is presented differently in different citation styles. APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most commonly used styles.

  14. Citing Sources: What are citations and why should I use them?

    Different subject disciplines call for citation information to be written in very specific order, capitalization, and punctuation. There are therefore many different style formats. Three popular citation formats are MLA Style (for humanities articles) and APA or Chicago (for social sciences articles). MLA style (print journal article):

  15. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    Cite your source automatically in MLA Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source's entry on the Works Cited page.

  16. Free Citation Generator: APA, MLA & Chicago Style—QuillBot AI

    Get 100% accurate citations for free. QuillBot's Citation Generator can quickly and easily create references for books, articles, and web pages in APA, MLA, Chicago, and many more styles. Follow the simple steps below to create, edit, and export both in-text and full citations for your source material.

  17. PDF Using "et al." in APA 7: A Quick Rundown

    Using "et al." in APA 7: A Quick Rundown . The abbreviated term "et al." simply means "and others." Typically, "et al." will be used when referring to source material by three or more authors within the body text of a paper.

  18. MLA Citation Examples

    In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation. Citation in prose. Citations in prose are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, citations in prose use the author's full name when cited the first time in the text. Thereafter, only the surname is used.

  19. MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  20. Free MLA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!). Generate MLA format citations and create your works cited page accurately with our free MLA citation generator.

  21. [2402.13222] RoCode: A Dataset for Measuring Code Intelligence from

    Recently, large language models (LLMs) have become increasingly powerful and have become capable of solving a plethora of tasks through proper instructions in natural language. However, the vast majority of testing suites assume that the instructions are written in English, the de facto prompting language. Code intelligence and problem solving still remain a difficult task, even for the most ...