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How to Write a Report

Last Updated: December 4, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Emily Listmann, MA and by wikiHow staff writer, Amy Bobinger . Emily Listmann is a private tutor in San Carlos, California. She has worked as a Social Studies Teacher, Curriculum Coordinator, and an SAT Prep Teacher. She received her MA in Education from the Stanford Graduate School of Education in 2014. There are 22 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 8,648,510 times.

When you’re assigned to write a report, it can seem like an intimidating process. Fortunately, if you pay close attention to the report prompt, choose a subject you like, and give yourself plenty of time to research your topic, you might actually find that it’s not so bad. After you gather your research and organize it into an outline, all that’s left is to write out your paragraphs and proofread your paper before you hand it in!

Sample Reports

in report writing

Selecting Your Topic

Step 1 Read the report prompt or guidelines carefully.

  • The guidelines will also typically tell you the requirements for the structure and format of your report.
  • If you have any questions about the assignment, speak up as soon as possible. That way, you don’t start working on the report, only to find out you have to start over because you misunderstood the report prompt.

Step 2 Choose a topic

  • For instance, if your report is supposed to be on a historical figure, you might choose someone you find really interesting, like the first woman to be governor of a state in the U.S., or the man who invented Silly Putty.
  • If your report is about information technology , you could gather information about the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data or information.
  • Even if you don’t have the option to choose your topic, you can often find something in your research that you find interesting. If your assignment is to give a report on the historical events of the 1960s in America, for example, you could focus your report on the way popular music reflected the events that occurred during that time.

Tip: Always get approval from your teacher or boss on the topic you choose before you start working on the report!

Step 3 Try to pick a topic that is as specific as possible.

  • If you’re not sure what to write about at first, pick a larger topic, then narrow it down as you start researching.
  • For instance, if you wanted to do your report on World Fairs, then you realize that there are way too many of them to talk about, you might choose one specific world fair, such as the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, to focus on.
  • However, you wouldn’t necessarily want to narrow it down to something too specific, like “Food at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition,” since it could be hard to find sources on the subject without just listing a lot of recipes.

Researching the Report

Step 1 Include a variety...

  • If you don’t have guidelines on how many sources to use, try to find 1-2 reputable sources for each page of the report.
  • Sources can be divided into primary sources, like original written works, court records, and interviews, and secondary sources, like reference books and reviews.
  • Databases, abstracts, and indexes are considered tertiary sources, and can be used to help you find primary and secondary sources for your report. [5] X Research source
  • If you’re writing a business report , you may be given some supplementary materials, such as market research or sales reports, or you may need to compile this information yourself. [6] X Research source

Step 2 Visit the library first if you’re writing a report for school.

  • Librarians are an excellent resource when you're working on a report. They can help you find books, articles, and other credible sources.
  • Often, a teacher will limit how many online sources you can use. If you find most of the information you need in the library, you can then use your online sources for details that you couldn’t find anywhere else.

Tip: Writing a report can take longer than you think! Don't put off your research until the last minute , or it will be obvious that you didn't put much effort into the assignment.

Step 3 Use only scholarly sources if you do online research.

  • Examples of authoritative online sources include government websites, articles written by known experts, and publications in peer-reviewed journals that have been published online.

Step 4 Cross-reference your sources to find new material.

  • If you’re using a book as one of your sources, check the very back few pages. That’s often where an author will list the sources they used for their book.

Step 5 Keep thorough notes...

  • Remember to number each page of your notes, so you don’t get confused later about what information came from which source!
  • Remember, you’ll need to cite any information that you use in your report; however, exactly how you do this will depend on the format that was assigned to you.

Step 6 Use your research...

  • For most reports, your thesis statement should not contain your own opinions. However, if you're writing a persuasive report, the thesis should contain an argument that you will have to prove in the body of the essay.
  • An example of a straightforward report thesis (Thesis 1) would be: “The three main halls of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition were filled with modern creations of the day and were an excellent representation of the innovative spirit of the Progressive era.”
  • A thesis for a persuasive report (Thesis 2) might say: “The Panama-Pacific International Exposition was intended as a celebration of the Progressive spirit, but actually harbored a deep racism and principle of white supremacy that most visitors chose to ignore or celebrate.”

Step 7 Organize your notes...

  • The purpose of an outline is to help you to visualize how your essay will look. You can create a straightforward list or make a concept map , depending on what makes the most sense to you.
  • Try to organize the information from your notes so it flows together logically. For instance, it can be helpful to try to group together related items, like important events from a person’s childhood, education, and career, if you’re writing a biographical report.
  • Example main ideas for Thesis 1: Exhibits at the Court of the Universe, Exhibits at the Court of the Four Seasons, Exhibits at the Court of Abundance.

Tip: It can help to create your outline on a computer in case you change your mind as you’re moving information around.

Writing the First Draft

Step 1 Format the report according to the guidelines you were given.

  • Try to follow any formatting instructions to the letter. If there aren't any, opt for something classic, like 12-point Times New Roman or Arial font, double-spaced lines, and 1 in (2.5 cm) margins all around.
  • You'll usually need to include a bibliography at the end of the report that lists any sources you used. You may also need a title page , which should include the title of the report, your name, the date, and the person who requested the report.
  • For some types of reports, you may also need to include a table of contents and an abstract or summary that briefly sums up what you’ve written. It’s typically easier to write these after you’ve finished your first draft. [14] X Research source

Step 2 State your thesis...

  • Example Intro for Thesis 1: “The Panama-Pacific International Exposition (PPIE) of 1915 was intended to celebrate both the creation of the Panama Canal, and the technological advancements achieved at the turn of the century. The three main halls of the PPIE were filled with modern creations of the day and were an excellent representation of the innovative spirit of the Progressive era.”

Step 3 Start each paragraph in the body of the report with a topic sentence.

  • Typically, you should present the most important or compelling information first.
  • Example topic sentence for Thesis 1: At the PPIE, the Court of the Universe was the heart of the exposition and represented the greatest achievements of man, as well as the meeting of the East and the West.

Tip: Assume that your reader knows little to nothing about the subject. Support your facts with plenty of details and include definitions if you use technical terms or jargon in the paper.

Step 4 Support each topic sentence with evidence from your research.

  • Paraphrasing means restating the original author's ideas in your own words. On the other hand, a direct quote means using the exact words from the original source in quotation marks, with the author cited.
  • For the topic sentence listed above about the Court of the Universe, the body paragraph should go on to list the different exhibits found at the exhibit, as well as proving how the Court represented the meeting of the East and West.
  • Use your sources to support your topic, but don't plagiarize . Always restate the information in your own words. In most cases, you'll get in serious trouble if you just copy from your sources word-for-word. Also, be sure to cite each source as you use it, according to the formatting guidelines you were given. [18] X Research source

Step 5 Follow your evidence with commentary explaining why it links to your thesis.

  • Your commentary needs to be at least 1-2 sentences long. For a longer report, you may write more sentences for each piece of commentary.

Step 6 Summarize your research...

  • Avoid presenting any new information in the conclusion. You don’t want this to be a “Gotcha!” moment. Instead, it should be a strong summary of everything you’ve already told the reader.

Revising Your Report

Step 1 Scan the report to make sure everything is included and makes sense.

  • A good question to ask yourself is, “If I were someone reading this report for the first time, would I feel like I understood the topic after I finished reading?

Tip: If you have time before the deadline, set the report aside for a few days . Then, come back and read it again. This can help you catch errors you might otherwise have missed.

Step 2 Check carefully for proofreading errors.

  • Try reading the report to yourself out loud. Hearing the words can help you catch awkward language or run-on sentences you might not catch by reading it silently.

Step 3 Read each sentence from the end to the beginning.

  • This is a great trick to find spelling errors or grammatical mistakes that your eye would otherwise just scan over.

Step 4 Have someone else proofread it for you.

  • Ask your helper questions like, “Do you understand what I am saying in my report?” “Is there anything you think I should take out or add?” And “Is there anything you would change?”

Step 5 Compare your report to the assignment requirements to ensure it meets expectations.

  • If you have any questions about the assignment requirements, ask your instructor. It's important to know how they'll be grading your assignment.

Expert Q&A

Emily Listmann, MA

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Write a Financial Report

  • ↑ https://libguides.reading.ac.uk/reports/writing-up
  • ↑ https://emory.libanswers.com/faq/44525
  • ↑ https://opentextbc.ca/writingforsuccess/chapter/chapter-7-sources-choosing-the-right-ones/
  • ↑ https://libguides.merrimack.edu/research_help/Sources
  • ↑ https://www.wgtn.ac.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/1779625/VBS-Report-Writing-Guide-2017.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.library.illinois.edu/hpnl/tutorials/primary-sources/
  • ↑ https://libguides.scu.edu.au/harvard/secondary-sources
  • ↑ https://learningcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/taking-notes-while-reading/
  • ↑ https://wts.indiana.edu/writing-guides/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement.html
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/outline
  • ↑ https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/engl250oer/chapter/10-4-table-of-contents/
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/thesis-statements/
  • ↑ https://www.yourdictionary.com/articles/report-writing-format
  • ↑ https://www.monash.edu/rlo/assignment-samples/assignment-types/writing-an-essay/writing-body-paragraphs
  • ↑ https://www.grammarly.com/blog/5-most-effective-methods-for-avoiding-plagiarism/
  • ↑ https://wts.indiana.edu/writing-guides/using-evidence.html
  • ↑ https://www.student.unsw.edu.au/writing-report
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/revising-drafts/
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/grammarpunct/proofreading/
  • ↑ https://opentextbc.ca/writingforsuccess/chapter/chapter-12-peer-review-and-final-revisions/
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/

About This Article

Emily Listmann, MA

It can seem really hard to write a report, but it will be easier if you choose an original topic that you're passionate about. Once you've got your topic, do some research on it at the library and online, using reputable sources like encyclopedias, scholarly journals, and government websites. Use your research write a thesis statement that sums up the focus of your paper, then organize your notes into an outline that supports that thesis statement. Finally, expand that outline into paragraph form. Read on for tips from our Education co-author on how to format your report! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to write a report (with tips and examples)

Delve into our practical guide designed to improve your report writing skills. Explore example reports and discover useful tips for writing clear and effective reports.

Craft Author: Daniel Duke

1. Understand Your Purpose: Always start with a clear understanding of your report's objective. This clarity guides your research, the writing process, and the way you present your findings.

2. Emphasize Clarity and Precision: Your report should be written in clear, simple language. Prioritize precision and avoid unnecessary jargon. Use visuals to represent complex data effectively.

3. Refine Through Revision: Never underestimate the power of editing and proofreading. These steps are critical in enhancing the quality of your report. Additionally, seeking feedback from colleagues or mentors can provide valuable insights.

What is a Report?

Imagine having to comprehend the intricate details of a six-month-long project in a single meeting, or having to make an informed decision based on a sea of raw data. Overwhelming, isn't it? This is where the power of a report comes into play.

A report is a strategic tool that communicates the results of an investigation, a project, or any complex analysis in a clear and concise way. It is the torchlight that cuts through the dense forest of data and information, guiding us toward understanding and action.

At its heart, a report is about simplicity and clarity. It takes the core findings from a more complex investigation and distills them into a simpler, easier-to-follow narrative.

Take, for example, a Financial Analysis Report in a business setting. Such a report takes a mountain of financial data – from revenue to expenses, assets to liabilities – and transforms it into a clear analysis that highlights the company's financial health, trends, and areas that need attention. By distilling complex financial data into a digestible format, the report empowers decision-makers to understand the company's financial state and make informed strategic decisions.

Types of Report

Reports come in all shapes and sizes, each designed to communicate specific types of information to particular audiences. Here are five common types of reports used in a professional setting:

Project Status Report

As its name suggests, a Project Status Report provides an update on a specific project's progress. It typically includes information about completed tasks, ongoing work, any challenges encountered, and next steps. This report is crucial in keeping stakeholders informed and facilitating timely decision-making. For example, a project manager in an IT company might prepare a weekly Project Status Report to update the leadership team about the progress of a new software development project.

Financial Report

A Financial Report is an essential document in the business world. It provides a comprehensive overview of a company's financial health, including details about revenue, expenses, profits, losses, assets, and liabilities. These reports, often prepared quarterly or annually, help stakeholders, investors, and decision-makers understand the company's financial performance and make better-informed strategic decisions.

Research Report

Research Reports are commonly used in both academia and various industries. These reports present the findings from a research study, detailing the research methods, data collected, analysis, and conclusions drawn. For instance, a market research report might reveal consumer behavior trends, helping a company shape its marketing strategy.

Audit Report

An Audit Report is a formal document outlining an auditor's unbiased examination of a company's financial statements. It gives stakeholders confidence in the company's financial integrity and compliance with regulatory standards.

Progress Report

A Progress Report is often used to monitor the advancement of ongoing work or projects. These reports can be on an individual, team, or organizational level. For example, a sales team might produce a monthly progress report showing sales volumes, trends, and areas for improvement.

Each type of report serves its unique purpose and shares a common goal: to transform complex information into an accessible format that drives understanding, decision-making, and progress.

How to Format a Report

Every report requires a structured format for clear communication. The actual format of a report might vary depending on its purpose and formality, but here are the key components of an effective report:

1. Title Page: The Title Page should include the report's title, your name, the date, and often the name of your organization or institution.

2. Executive Summary: A succinct overview of the report's key points, findings, and implications. This section gives the reader a clear idea of what to expect from the report. Sometimes it's easier to compose this section last, once the rest of the report has been completed.

3. Table of Contents: A systematic list of the report's sections and subsections, acting as a navigational tool for your reader.

4. Introduction: The foundational part of the report. It introduces the topic, outlines the report's purpose, and defines its scope, preparing the reader for what's to come.

5. Methodology: An explanation of the methods and tools used for gathering and analyzing data. This section establishes the credibility of your findings and helps the reader comprehend your investigative process. This is perhaps more common in an academic setting: a project status report, for example, is less likely to need a section dedicated to methodology.

6. Findings/Results: The section where you detail your data and the results of your analysis. This is the core of your report, presenting the results of your investigation or research. As well as written data, you should include graphs, images and tables to present your findings, where appropriate.

7. Conclusion: The summary and interpretation of your findings. It reaffirms the insights your report offers and solidifies the report's overall message.

8. Recommendations: Based on the findings, this section proposes future actions or improvements, steering the course for next steps.

The final two sections are perhaps more common in an academic report, but both are worth mentioning here too:

9. Appendices: A place for any supplementary information or data that supports your report but isn't part of the main flow. It serves as a resource for readers interested in delving deeper into the topic.

10. References/Bibliography: A list of all the sources you've cited in your report. This section gives due credit to the referenced works and showcases the depth of your research.

How to Write a Report

Writing a compelling report is a skill crucial to various professional roles, no matter what position or industry you’re in. While the subject of each report might differ, there are key steps to creating an impactful document:

1. Understand the Purpose

Before you start writing, make sure you fully understand the purpose of your report. Why is it needed? What questions should it answer? Who will be reading it? Understanding these factors will guide your research, writing style, and the overall structure of your report.

2. Conduct Thorough Research

A strong report is based on accurate and comprehensive data. In a business setting, this research is usually based on your own data, whereas in an academic setting you'll often rely on external data sources. Take the time to research your topic thoroughly, using reliable and relevant sources. Keep track of all the sources you consult—you’ll need them for your bibliography.

3. Plan Your Report

Start with an outline. This step ensures your report has a logical flow and covers all necessary points. Just like a blueprint, an outline helps you structure your thoughts, organize your data, and divide your content into meaningful sections.

4. Write Clearly and Concisely

Your goal is to communicate, not to confuse. Keep your language simple and your sentences short. Make your points clearly, and support them with facts. Avoid jargon unless it's necessary and you're certain your audience understands it.

5. Use Visuals When Helpful

Charts, graphs, tables, and other visual aids can enhance your report by illustrating complex data in a digestible way. Ensure all visuals are relevant, appropriately labelled, and referenced in the text.

6. Draft and Revise

Your first draft won't be perfect, and that's okay. The key is to start writing. Once you have your thoughts on paper, you can refine and reorganize the content. Revising is a critical part of the writing process —never underestimate its power.

7. Proofread

Review your report for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors. Also, ensure all data and facts are accurate, and all sources are correctly cited (where applicable). An error-free report enhances your credibility and reflects your attention to detail.

8. Get Feedback

If possible, have a colleague or mentor review your report before finalizing it. They can provide fresh perspectives, point out any gaps, and suggest improvements.

9. Distribute the Report

Once your report is finalized, it's time to share your work. Distribute it to the appropriate audience, which may include your team, supervisor, or client. If the report will be discussed in a meeting or presentation , it might be helpful to distribute it in advance to give everyone a chance to review it.

Remember, writing a strong report is a blend of strategic thinking, thorough research, clear communication, and attention to detail.

Tips for Writing Successful Reports

Tips for writing successful reports

While the structure and purpose of reports may vary, certain principles apply universally to create successful documents. Here are five tips to elevate your report writing:

1. Maintain Objectivity

Your report should present data and facts as objectively as possible. Avoid letting personal biases influence the way you present information. Even when you're interpreting results or making recommendations, ensure that your conclusions are driven by the evidence at hand.

2. Stay Focused

Each report should have a single, clear purpose. Avoid going off on tangents or including irrelevant information. While it's important to provide context and background, don't lose sight of your report's main objective.

3. Think About Your Audience

Tailor your language, tone, and level of detail to the needs and understanding of your audience. A report written for experts in your field may use different language than one written for non-specialists. Always explain technical terms or industry jargon that your readers may not be familiar with.

4. Validate Your Points

Support every assertion you make with evidence or data. This adds credibility to your report and allows readers to understand the basis of your conclusions. Wherever possible, use graphics or visuals to illustrate your points—it’s a powerful way to represent data and ideas.

5. Format consistently

Consistency lends your report a professional look and helps readability. Stick to a consistent format in terms of font, spacing, heading styles, and captioning. Ensure your visuals are in sync with the rest of the document in terms of style and color scheme.

Reports are powerful communication tools, vital in various professional settings. The ability to write an effective report is a skill that can significantly enhance your impact in the workplace. From understanding what a report is, knowing the different types of reports, through to formatting and writing your report, the goal of this guide was to provide a comprehensive overview to help you excel in this critical skill.

By keeping the report’s purpose in mind, conducting thorough research, using a clear and concise writing style, and meticulously revising and proofreading your document, you can ensure your report not only communicates its intended information but does so in an engaging, digestible manner. Employing these strategies, combined with the tips offered, will help you create high-quality, impactful reports.

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Ultimate Guide on How to Write a Report Tips and Sample

in report writing

Defining a Report

A report is a type of writing that represents information, data, and research findings on a specific topic. The writer is expected to deliver a well-structured, credible, and informative text that dives into the small details of a certain topic, discussing its benefits and challenges.

Reports serve many important purposes. They provide recorded facts and findings. They are used to analyze data and draw insights that can be used for decision-making. Some reports serve as compliance checks to ensure that organizations meet certain standards and requirements. Also, reports are a formal way to communicate valuable information to decision-makers and stakeholders.

A report paper can be academic or about sales, science, business, etc. But unlike other texts, report writing takes much more than getting acquainted with the subject and forming an opinion about it. Report preparation is the most important stage of the writing process. Whether you are assigned to write an academic or a sales paper, before you start writing, you must do thorough research on the topic and ensure that every source of information is trustworthy.

Report writing has its rules. In this article, we will cover everything from how to start a report to how to format one. Below you will find a student research report sample. Check our paper writer service if you want one designed specifically for your requirements.

Student Research Report Sample

Before you read our article on how to write an act essay , see what an informative and well-structured report looks like. Below you will find a sample report that follows the format and tips we suggested in the article.

Explore and learn more about comprehensive but concise reports.

What are the Report Types

As mentioned, there are plenty of different types of report papers. Even though they are very formal, academic reports are only one of many people will come across in their lifetime. Some reports concentrate on the annual performance of a company, some on a project's progress, and others on scientific findings.

Next, we will elaborate more on different sorts of reports, their contents, and their purpose. Don't forget to also check out our report example that you can find below.

report types

Academic Reports

An academic report represents supported data and information about a particular subject. This could be a historical event, a book, or a scientific finding. The credibility of such academic writing is very important as it, in the future, could be used as a backup for dissertations, essays, and other academic work.

Students are often assigned to write reports to test their understanding of a topic. They also provide evidence of the student's ability to critically analyze and synthesize information. It also demonstrates the student's writing skills and ability to simply convey complex findings and ideas.

Remember that the report outline will affect your final grade when writing an academic report. If you want to learn about the correct report writing format, keep reading the article. If you want to save time, you can always buy essays online .

Project Reports

Every project has numerous stakeholders who like to keep an eye on how things are going. This can be challenging if the number of people who need to be kept in the loop is high. One way to ensure everyone is updated and on the same page is periodic project reports.

Project managers are often assigned to make a report for people that affect the project's fate. It is a detailed document that summarizes the work done during the project and the work that needs to be completed. It informs about deadlines and helps form coherent expectations. Previous reports can be used as a reference point as the project progresses.

Sales Reports

Sales reports are excellent ways to keep your team updated on your sales strategies. It provides significant information to stakeholders, including managers, investors, and executives, so they can make informed decisions about the direction of their business.

A sales report usually provides information about a company's sales performance over a precise period. These reports include information about the revenue generated, the total number of units sold, and other metrics that help the company define the success of sales performance.

Sales report preparation is a meticulous job. To communicate information engagingly, you can put together graphs showing various information, including engagement increase, profit margins, and more.

Business Reports

If you were assigned a business report, something tells us you are wondering how to write a report for work. Let us tell you that the strategy is not much different from writing an academic report. A Strong thesis statement, compelling storytelling, credible sources, and correct format are all that matter.

Business reports can take many forms, such as marketing reports, operational reports, market research reports, feasible studies, and more. The purpose of such report writing is to provide analysis and recommendations to support decision-making and help shape a company's future strategy.

Most business reports include charts, graphs, and other visual aids that help illustrate key points and make complex information easy to digest. 

Scientific Reports

Scientific reports present the results of scientific research or investigation to a specific audience. Unlike book reports, a scientific report is always reviewed by other experts in the field for its accuracy, quality, and relevance.

If you are a scientist or a science student, you can't escape writing a lab report. You will need to provide background information on the research topic and explain the study's purpose. A scientific report includes a discussion part where the researcher interprets the results and significance of the study.

Whether you are assigned to write medical reports or make a report about new findings in the field of physics, your writing should always have an introduction, methodology, results, conclusion, and references. These are the foundation of a well-written report.

Annual Reports

An annual report is a comprehensive piece of writing that provides information about a company's performance over a year. In its nature, it might remind us of extended financial reports.

Annual reports represent types of longer reports. They usually include an overview of a company's activities, a financial summary, detailed product and service information, and market conditions. But it's not just a report of the company's performance in the sales market, but also an overview of its social responsibility programs and sustainability activities.

The format of annual report writing depends on the company's specific requirements, the needs of its stakeholder, and the regulation of the country it's based.

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Report Format

As we've seen throughout this article, various types of reports exist. And even though their content differs, they share one essential element: report writing format. Structure, research methods, grammar, and reference lists are equally important to different reports.

Keep in mind that while the general format is the same for every type, you still need to check the requirements of the assigned report before writing one. School reports, lab reports, and financial reports are three different types of the same category.

We are now moving on to discuss the general report format. Let's direct our attention to how to start a report.

Title : You need a comprehensive but concise title to set the right tone and make a good impression. It should be reflective of the general themes in the report.

Table of Contents : Your title page must be followed by a table of contents. We suggest writing an entire report first and creating a table of content later.

Summary : The table of contents should be followed by an executive report summary. To create a comprehensive summary, wait until you have finished writing the full report.

Introduction : A major part of the report structure is an introduction. Make sure you convey the main idea of the report in just a few words. The introduction section must also include a strong thesis statement.

Body : The central part of your work is called the report's body. Here you should present relevant information and provide supported evidence. Make sure every paragraph starts with a topic sentence. Here you can use bullet points, graphs, and other visual aids.

Conclusion : Use this part to summarize your findings and focus on the main elements and what they bring to the table. Do not introduce new ideas. Good report writing means knowing the difference between a summary and a conclusion.

Recommendations : A report is designed to help decision-makers or provide crucial information to the conversation, including a set of goals or steps that should be taken to further advance the progress.

Appendices : As a finishing touch, include a list of source materials on which you based the information and facts. If you want your report to get acknowledged, don't neglect this part of the report format.

How to Write a Report Like a PRO

Mastering the report writing format is only a fraction of the job. Writing an exceptional report takes more than just including a title page and references.

Next, we will offer report-writing tips to help you figure out how to write a report like a PRO. Meanwhile, if you need someone to review your physics homework, our physics helper is ready to take on the job.

report like a pro

Start With a Strong Thesis

A strong thesis is essential to a good paper because it sets the direction for the rest. It should provide a well-defined but short summary of the main points and arguments made in the report.

A strong thesis can help you collect your thoughts and ensure that the report has a course and a coherent structure. It will help you stay focused on key points and tie every paragraph into one entity.

A clear thesis will make your report writing sound more confident and persuasive. It will make finding supporting evidence easier, and you will be able to effectively communicate your ideas to the reader.

Use Simple Wording

Reports are there to gather and distribute as much information to as many people as possible. So, the content of it should be accessible and understandable for everyone, despite their knowledge in the field. We encourage you to use simple words instead of fancy ones when writing reports for large audiences.

Other academic papers might require you to showcase advanced language knowledge and extensive vocabulary. Still, formal reports should present information in a way that does not confuse.

If you are wondering how to make report that is easy to read and digest, try finding simpler alternatives to fancy words. For example, use 'example' instead of 'paradigm'; Use 'relevant' instead of 'pertinent'; 'Exacerbate' is a fancier way to say 'worsen,' and while it makes you look educated, it might cause confusion and make you lose the reader. Choose words that are easier to understand.

Present Only One Concept in Each Phrase

Make your reports easier to understand by presenting only one concept in each paragraph. Simple, short sentences save everyone's time and make complex concepts easier to digest and memorize. 

Report writing is not a single-use material. It will be reread and re-used many times. Someone else might use your sales report to support their financial report. So, to avoid confusion and misinterpretation, start each paragraph with a topic sentence and tie everything else into this main theme.

Only Present Reliable Facts

You might have a strong hunch about future events or outcomes, but a research report is not a place to voice them. Everything you write should be supported by undisputed evidence.

Don't forget that one of the essential report preparation steps is conducting thorough research. Limit yourself to the information which is based on credible information. Only present relevant facts to the topic and add value to your thesis.

One of our report writing tips would be to write a rough draft and eliminate all the information not supported by reliable data. Double-check the credibility of the sources before finalizing the writing process.

Incorporate Bullet Points

When writing a research report, your goal is to make the information as consumable as possible. Don't shy away from using visual aids; this will only help you connect with a wider audience.

Bullet points are a great way to simplify the reading process and draw attention to the main concepts of the report. Use this technique in the body part of the report. If you notice that you are writing related information, use bullet points to point out their relation.

Incorporating bullet points and other visual aids in your report writing format will make a report easy to comprehend and use for further research.

While you are busy coming up with effective visual aids, you may not have enough time to take care of other assignments. Simply say, ' write my argumentative essay ,' and one of our expert writers will answer your prayer.

Review the Text for Accuracy and Inconsistencies

After completing report preparation and writing, ensure you don't skip the final stage. Even the greatest writers are not immune to grammatical mistakes and factual mix-ups.

Reviewing what you wrote is just as important as the research stage. Make sure there are no inconsistencies, and everything smoothly ties into the bigger scheme of events. Look out for spelling mistakes and word count.

If you want to further advance your writing skills, read our article about how to write a cover letter for essay .

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Some academic assignments ask for a ‘report’, rather than an essay, and students are often confused about what that really means.

Likewise, in business, confronted with a request for a ‘report’ to a senior manager, many people struggle to know what to write.

Confusion often arises about the writing style, what to include, the language to use, the length of the document and other factors.

This page aims to disentangle some of these elements, and provide you with some advice designed to help you to write a good report.

What is a Report?

In academia there is some overlap between reports and essays, and the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, but reports are more likely to be needed for business, scientific and technical subjects, and in the workplace.

Whereas an essay presents arguments and reasoning, a report concentrates on facts.

Essentially, a report is a short, sharp, concise document which is written for a particular purpose and audience. It generally sets outs and analyses a situation or problem, often making recommendations for future action. It is a factual paper, and needs to be clear and well-structured.

Requirements for the precise form and content of a report will vary between organisation and departments and in study between courses, from tutor to tutor, as well as between subjects, so it’s worth finding out if there are any specific guidelines before you start.

Reports may contain some or all of the following elements:

  • A description of a sequence of events or a situation;
  • Some interpretation of the significance of these events or situation, whether solely your own analysis or informed by the views of others, always carefully referenced of course (see our page on Academic Referencing for more information);
  • An evaluation of the facts or the results of your research;
  • Discussion of the likely outcomes of future courses of action;
  • Your recommendations as to a course of action; and
  • Conclusions.

Not all of these elements will be essential in every report.

If you’re writing a report in the workplace, check whether there are any standard guidelines or structure that you need to use.

For example, in the UK many government departments have outline structures for reports to ministers that must be followed exactly.

Sections and Numbering

A report is designed to lead people through the information in a structured way, but also to enable them to find the information that they want quickly and easily.

Reports usually, therefore, have numbered sections and subsections, and a clear and full contents page listing each heading. It follows that page numbering is important.

Modern word processors have features to add tables of contents (ToC) and page numbers as well as styled headings; you should take advantage of these as they update automatically as you edit your report, moving, adding or deleting sections.

Report Writing

Getting started: prior preparation and planning.

The structure of a report is very important to lead the reader through your thinking to a course of action and/or decision. It’s worth taking a bit of time to plan it out beforehand.

Step 1: Know your brief

You will usually receive a clear brief for a report, including what you are studying and for whom the report should be prepared.

First of all, consider your brief very carefully and make sure that you are clear who the report is for (if you're a student then not just your tutor, but who it is supposed to be written for), and why you are writing it, as well as what you want the reader to do at the end of reading: make a decision or agree a recommendation, perhaps.

Step 2: Keep your brief in mind at all times

During your planning and writing, make sure that you keep your brief in mind: who are you writing for, and why are you writing?

All your thinking needs to be focused on that, which may require you to be ruthless in your reading and thinking. Anything irrelevant should be discarded.

As you read and research, try to organise your work into sections by theme, a bit like writing a Literature Review .

Make sure that you keep track of your references, especially for academic work. Although referencing is perhaps less important in the workplace, it’s also important that you can substantiate any assertions that you make so it’s helpful to keep track of your sources of information.

The Structure of a Report

Like the precise content, requirements for structure vary, so do check what’s set out in any guidance.

However, as a rough guide, you should plan to include at the very least an executive summary, introduction, the main body of your report, and a section containing your conclusions and any recommendations.

Executive Summary

The executive summary or abstract , for a scientific report, is a brief summary of the contents. It’s worth writing this last, when you know the key points to draw out. It should be no more than half a page to a page in length.

Remember the executive summary is designed to give busy 'executives' a quick summary of the contents of the report.

Introduction

The introduction sets out what you plan to say and provides a brief summary of the problem under discussion. It should also touch briefly on your conclusions.

Report Main Body

The main body of the report should be carefully structured in a way that leads the reader through the issue.

You should split it into sections using numbered sub-headings relating to themes or areas for consideration. For each theme, you should aim to set out clearly and concisely the main issue under discussion and any areas of difficulty or disagreement. It may also include experimental results. All the information that you present should be related back to the brief and the precise subject under discussion.

If it’s not relevant, leave it out.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The conclusion sets out what inferences you draw from the information, including any experimental results. It may include recommendations, or these may be included in a separate section.

Recommendations suggest how you think the situation could be improved, and should be specific, achievable and measurable. If your recommendations have financial implications, you should set these out clearly, with estimated costs if possible.

A Word on Writing Style

When writing a report, your aim should be to be absolutely clear. Above all, it should be easy to read and understand, even to someone with little knowledge of the subject area.

You should therefore aim for crisp, precise text, using plain English, and shorter words rather than longer, with short sentences.

You should also avoid jargon. If you have to use specialist language, you should explain each word as you use it. If you find that you’ve had to explain more than about five words, you’re probably using too much jargon, and need to replace some of it with simpler words.

Consider your audience. If the report is designed to be written for a particular person, check whether you should be writing it to ‘you’ or perhaps in the third person to a job role: ‘The Chief Executive may like to consider…’, or ‘The minister is recommended to agree…’, for example.

A Final Warning

As with any academic assignment or formal piece of writing, your work will benefit from being read over again and edited ruthlessly for sense and style.

Pay particular attention to whether all the information that you have included is relevant. Also remember to check tenses, which person you have written in, grammar and spelling. It’s also worth one last check against any requirements on structure.

For an academic assignment, make sure that you have referenced fully and correctly. As always, check that you have not inadvertently or deliberately plagiarised or copied anything without acknowledging it.

Finally, ask yourself:

“Does my report fulfil its purpose?”

Only if the answer is a resounding ‘yes’ should you send it off to its intended recipient.

Continue to: How to Write a Business Case Planning an Essay

See also: Business Writing Tips Study Skills Writing a Dissertation or Thesis

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How to Write a Report (2023 Guide & Free Templates)

You have a report due in a few days, but you’re still procrastinating like a pro.

Sounds familiar?

If you’ve been staring at a blank page, wondering how to write a report the best way possible, you’re not alone. For many, writing a report, especially for the first time, can feel like rolling a giant boulder uphill.

The good news is that from a first draft to creating reports that people love to read is a skill you can develop and polish over time.

Whether you’re a student, a professional, or someone who wants to up their report-writing game, keep reading for a 2023 guide and step-by-step instructions on how to write a report. Plus, learn about the basic report format.

You’ll also get access to report templates that you can edit and customize immediately and learn about a tool to make reports online (no need to download software!). You can also jump right into customizing templates by creating a free account .

What is report writing?

Report writing is a way of communicating information, data, insight, or analysis. It’s an essential skill that will come in handy in various settings, from academic research or diving into historical events to business meetings.

But creating a report can be a bit intimidating at first.

In its simplest form, report writing starts with researching and gathering all the information, analyzing your findings, and presenting it in a way that’s easy for your audience to understand.

Sounds easy enough, right? 

Well, there’s a bit more to it than that. We’ll guide you through every step of the process to write an entire report from a rough draft and data in the next section. 

But first, let’s get to know the different types of reports.

Types of reports

Reports come in all shapes and sizes, and the type of report you write will depend on your specific goals and audience. Each type of report has its unique purpose, format, and style.

financial review report, how to write a report

The most common types of reports are: 

  • Academic report – These include school reports, book reports, thesis reports, or analytical reports between two opposing ideas.
  • Business report – Business reports range from annual reports to SWOT analyses . The goal of business reports is to communicate ideas, information, or insights in a business setting.
  • Research report –  Research reports are often more scientific or methodological in nature. They can take the form of case studies or research papers. 

Learn more : 20 Types of Reports and When to Use Them (Plus Templates)

How to write a report without feeling overwhelmed

Breaking down the report writing process into three stages can make it much more manageable for you, especially if it’s your first time to create one. 

These three stages are: 

  • Pre-writing stage
  • Writing stage
  • Post-writing stage

Let’s take a look at the steps for each stage and how to write a good report in 2023 that you can be proud of.

Stage 1: Pre-writing 

The pre-writing stage is all about preparation. Take some time to gather your thoughts and organize your main idea. Write a summary first.

Here are important steps to help you deal with the overwhelm of creating an insightful report. 

Understand the purpose of your report

Knowing your purpose will help you focus and stay on track throughout the process. Dig into the why of your report through these questions:

  • Who is your intended reader? Are you familiar with your audience’s language and how they think?
  • What are you trying to achieve with your report? Are you trying to inform, persuade, or recommend a course of action to the reader? 

Research your topic

It’s time to gather as much information as you can about your topic. This might involve reading books, articles, and other reports. You might also need to conduct interviews with subject matter experts.

Pro tip on how to write a report : Pick reputable sources like research papers, recently-published books, and case studies by trustworthy authors. 

Make a report outline

An outline is a roadmap for your report. It covers your title, introduction, thesis statement, main points, and conclusion. Organizing your thoughts this way will help you keep focus and ensure you cover all the necessary information.

example of a business report outline

While you can create a report without creating an outline, you could write a better report with an outline. An outline helps you organize your facts and important points on paper. 

Stage 2: Writing

Once you have completed the pre-writing stage, it’s time to write your report. 

Follow the proper report writing format

You will feel a lot of resistance at this point because this is where most of the tedious work of report writing happens. However, the process can be a breeze if you follow a proper structure and report writing format.

The structure of your report can vary depending on the type of report you’re creating, but the report writing format below can serve as a guide for anyone.

  • Title page. This is the first page of your report and should include the report’s title, the author’s name, the date of presentation or submission, and any other relevant information, such as your name or the organization’s name.
  • Table of Contents (TOC ). This section contains subsections of your report and their corresponding page numbering.  A well-written TOC will help readers navigate your report easily and find the information they need.
  • Brief summary . This part provides an overview of the report’s particular purpose, subject, methodology, key findings, and recommendations. This section is often called the executive summary in corporate reports.
  • Introduction . The introduction should provide background information about the topic and explain why the report was written. It should also state the aims and objectives of your report and give an overview of the methodology used to gather and analyze the data. Make sure you include a powerful topic sentence.
  • Main body. The main body of the report should be divided into subsections, each dealing with a specific aspect of the topic. These sections should be clearly labeled and organized in a logical order. In most reports, this is also the part where you explain and present your findings, analysis, and recommendations.
  • Conclusion. Summarize the main points of your report and provide a final summary, thought, or suggestions. Review your thesis statement. The conclusion also includes any limitations of the study and areas for further research or future action.
  • References . This section should include a list of all the sources cited in the report, like books, journal articles, websites, and any other sources used to gather information on your subject.
  • Appendices . In the appendices section, you should include any additional information relevant to the report but not in the article’s main body. This might consist of raw data, event details, graphs, charts, or tables.

With all these key report elements, your readers can look forward to an informative, well-organized, and easy-to-read report.

Pro tips: Remember to use clear and concise language in your essay. It is also required to follow a specific type of formatting set by your organization or instructor.

Plus, use the active voice when you can because it helps improve clarity. To write a report essay in a passive voice makes it sound less concise.

Reports should usually be written in the third person.

Edit and proofread the article

Once you have completed your first essay draft, take some time to edit and proofread your work. Look for spelling mistakes and grammar errors, as well as any areas where the flow of your article could be improved. Review your topic sentence.

If hiring a professional editor isn’t possible, have a colleague or someone else read your rough draft and provide feedback. You can also use tools like Grammarly and the Hemingway App . 

Stage 3: Post-writing

You’re almost there! This stage is about finalizing your report and ensuring it is ready to be shared. 

Format your report

Ensure your report is formatted correctly, with clear and easy-to-read fonts, headings, and subheadings.

Incorporate visuals

Adding visuals to your report article is another great way to help your audience understand complex information more easily.

From charts to illustrations, the right visual can help highlight and explain key points, events, trends, and patterns in your data, making it easier for the reader to interpret the information.

an example of a report that uses visuals effectively, written report

Want to check out more templates? Get access to the template gallery today .

However, it’s important to use visuals sparingly and ensure they are relevant and effectively support the texts. You will learn more about effectively incorporating visuals into your report as you scroll down below to the next sections. 

Share your report

Once your report is complete, share it with your audience. This might involve submitting it to your boss, presenting it to a group, or sharing it online.

A final note for this section: Remember to take your time, stay organized, and most importantly, have fun! Writing a report can be a rewarding experience, especially if you get positive feedback when you present.

How to add visuals to your report

Adding visuals to your report is more than just putting a graph or chart for every piece of information.

There are no hard and fast rules but use the pointers below as guidelines:

  • Each visual in your report should have a purpose. Don’t just add a pie chart or bar graph for the sake of adding one. Your visual of choice should offer clarity to readers that’s impossible to achieve with words alone. Piktochart’s report maker lets you search for free stock images and illustrations to add to any page with drag and drop.
  • Add captions, legends, or arrows to your visuals when possible. For more technical reports, graphics are either Tables or Figures. Number them in order of appearance (Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, etc.) and give each a descriptive title.
  • Place the visual close to the relevant text on the page.
  • Document the source of the visual, citing it in both the caption and references section if necessary.
  • Make the graphic stand out with colors, borders, boxes, spacing, and frames.

a report about customer satisfaction results with graphs, charts, and icons

Learn more : How to Improve Your Data Visualization Design in 6 Steps 

Write reports like a pro with Piktochart’s easy-to-edit report templates

Creating reports from scratch can be time-consuming. The great news is you don’t have to make reports from scratch like how it used to be in the 90s and early 2000s. Organizations of all shapes and sizes now understand that you can also create the perfect report with the help of templates.

For example, Piktochart offers a variety of fully customizable templates, allowing you to easily add your branding, colors, and text within the online editor. You can visualize your thesis statement and first draft in less than an hour. It’s also possible to start writing directly in the tool, adding graphics page by page.

These templates range from reports for school presentations to sales reports. By editing them, you can create professional-looking reports without the hassle of formatting and design.

Here are some examples of Piktochart’s professionally-designed templates. If you can’t pick one that matches your report writing format and needs, create a free Piktochart account to get access to more templates. 

Survey report template 

This survey report template includes clear visualizations, making your report findings easier to understand. From customer surveys to employee satisfaction reports, this template is quite versatile. 

an employee satisfaction survey report template by Piktochart

Research report template 

This research report template is perfect for anyone looking to create a thorough and professional research report. The template includes all the necessary sections to help you easily organize your research and present your findings in a concise document.

research report template by Piktochart

Corporate report template 

Looking for a corporate report template example with an editable table of contents and foreword? This template is the perfect fit!

Whether you’re presenting to investors or sharing information with your team, this corporate report template will help you create a polished and informative executive summary for any corporate organization.

corporate report template by Piktochart

Case study report template

Whether you’re conducting a business case study or an academic case study, this case study report template can help you earn your readers’ trust. This template is specifically designed with fashion as its main theme, but you can edit the photos and details to make it more on-brand with your niche.

case study report template

Marketing report template

Use this template to create comprehensive marketing reports. The template includes editable sections for social media, data from search engines, email marketing, and paid ads. 

monthly marketing report template by Piktochart

Financial report template 

With this customizable finance report template, you don’t need to make a financial report from scratch. Once you’ve written your content, save your report in PDF or PNG formats.

finance report template by Piktochart

Annual report template 

This annual report template is the right template for creating a professional and informative executive summary of your organization’s performance over the past year. This template was designed for HR annual reports, but you can also repurpose it for other types of yearly reports. 

annual review template by Piktochart showing how to write a report

See more report templates by creating a free Piktochart account . 

Quick checklist for better report writing

Before you submit or present your report, use the quick checklist below to help ensure that your report is well-structured, accurate, clear, and properly cited. Most of all, you must ensure that your report meets your audience’s expectations and has all the information and details they need. 

Purpose and audience

  • Does the report address its purpose and meet the needs of the intended audience?

Structure and organization

  • Is the material appropriately arranged in sections?
  • Have irrelevant details been removed?

Accuracy and analysis

  • Has all the material been checked for accuracy?
  • Are graphs and tables clearly labeled? Check the page numbers too.
  • Is the data in graphs or tables analyzed and explained in words?
  • Does the discussion or conclusion show how the results relate to the objectives mentioned in the introduction?
  • Have the results been compared with existing research from the literature survey?

Writing style and clarity

  • Is the report written in a tone that’s indicated in the brand style guide (for corporate reports)? Does it avoid colloquialisms or contractions? 
  • Does it follow the organization’s specific guidelines for writing style? 
  • Is it jargon-free and clearly written? Have you translated technical terms into simpler words?
  • Use the active voice when you can because it helps improve clarity. A written report in a passive voice may make it sound less concise. 

Acknowledgment and citation

  • Have all ideas and event data taken from or inspired by someone else’s work been acknowledged with a reference?
  • Have all illustrations and figures taken from someone else’s work been cited correctly?

Proofreading

  • Has the report been carefully proofread for typos, spelling errors, and grammatical mistakes?

Make engaging and effective reports quickly with Piktochart

Writing a report is a must-have skill for anyone looking to communicate more effectively in their personal and professional lives. 

With the steps we’ve provided in this guide, anyone can learn how to write a report that is informative, engaging, and comprehensive.

Plus, the free templates we highlighted are valuable for individuals looking to create reports quickly and efficiently. They can also be used to transform a longer report filled with texts into something more engaging and easy to digest.

Sign up for a free Piktochart account today, and look forward to writing reports with its library of modern, customizable report templates. 

Piktochart offers professionally designed templates for all your visual communication needs. It is your one-stop shop for presentations , posters , logos , email signatures , infographics , and more. Customize all templates according to your brand assets in seconds. Get started for free today.

Kaitomboc

Kyjean Tomboc is an experienced content marketer for healthcare, design, and SaaS brands. She also manages content (like a digital librarian of sorts). She lives for mountain trips, lap swimming, books, and cats.

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Features of Report Writing: A Brief Overview

Features of Report Writing explores key elements like clarity, accuracy, objectivity, structure, visual aids, evidence, and recommendations. These features ensure effective communication by presenting information, substantiating claims with credible evidence, and providing actionable recommendations.

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Table of Contents  

1) What is Report Writing? 

2) Features of Report Writing 

     a) Clarity  

     b) Accuracy  

     c) Visual aids  

     d) Evidence  

     e) Structure  

     f) Recommendations  

     g) Objectivity 

3) Steps to write a Report 

4) Conclusion 

What is Report Writing ?  

Report Writing is a systematic and structured process of gathering, analysing, and presenting information in a formal document. It is a vital communication tool used across various fields, including academia, business, government, and research. Reports serve the purpose of informing, analysing, and making recommendations based on gathered data and research findings .   

The process typically involves:  

a) Defining the purpose and scope of the Report 

b) Conducting thorough research 

c) Organising the collected data 

d) Presenting the information clearly and concisely 

Reports can vary in complexity, from simple one-page documents to extensive research papers, business proposals, or technical manuals. Effective Report Writing requires a keen understanding of the target audience, as well as the ability to convey complex ideas understandably .   

It involves structuring the content logically, ensuring coherence and consistency, and providing evidence-based conclusions or recommendations. Well-written Reports facilitate informed decision-making, problem-solving, and knowledge dissemination within organisations, making them invaluable tools for conveying critical information and contributing to the overall success of various endeavours. 

Report Writing Training

Features of Report Writing  

To help you create an effective Report, here are some of its Features of Report Writing:  

Features of Report Writing

Clarity  

Clarity in Report Writing is crucial. It ensures that complex ideas and data are presented straightforwardly and understandably. A clear Report leaves no room for ambiguity, allowing readers to grasp the information effortlessly. Achieving clarity involves:  

a) Using simple and precise language 

b) Structuring sentences and paragraphs logically 

c) Employing visuals like charts or graphs for better comprehension 

When a Report is clear, readers can quickly discern the key points, making it an effective tool for conveying information, aiding decision-making, and facilitating meaningful communication in various professional and academic contexts. 

Accuracy   

Accuracy is a pivotal feature in Report Writing, ensuring the information presented is precise, reliable, and error-free. It demands thorough research, attention to detail, and fact-checking to substantiate claims and findings. Inaccurate data can mislead readers and compromise the Report's credibility .   

Writers must verify sources, use reliable data collection methods, and cross-verify information to maintain the Report's accuracy. Precision in language, adherence to established methodologies, and rigorous analysis contribute to the overall accuracy of the Report. A meticulously accurate Report enhances its reliability and builds trust, making it an invaluable tool for informed decision-making and academic discourse. 

Visual aids  

Visual aids are essential components of effective Report Writing, enhancing understanding and retention of information. Graphs, charts, tables, and images simplify complex data, making it accessible to a broad audience. These visuals provide a clear visual representation of trends, comparisons, and patterns, supplementing textual information.   

They are potent tools for emphasising key points, supporting arguments, and enhancing comprehension. Well-designed visuals make the Report visually appealing and help readers absorb information more efficiently. By presenting data visually, Report writers can engage their audience, simplify complex concepts, and reinforce the main ideas, ensuring the Report's message is communicated effectively.  

Evidence  

Evidence in Report Writing refers to factual data, examples, or expert opinions supporting the document's claims and conclusions. It serves as the foundation upon which reliable arguments and analyses are built. Strong evidence enhances the Report's credibility, persuading readers of the validity of the presented information.   

Researchers often rely on empirical studies, statistical data, surveys, or credible sources to substantiate their findings. They have correctly cited evidence not only validates the Report's assertions but also demonstrates the writer's thorough research and expertise on the topic. Evidence strengthens the Report's integrity, assuring readers that the information presented is well-grounded and trustworthy.    

Structure  

Structure in Report Writing refers to the organised framework that guides the presentation of information. A well-defined structure ensures logical flow, enabling readers to navigate the content seamlessly. It typically includes sections such as introduction, methodology, findings, analysis, conclusions, and recommendations.   

Each section has a specific purpose, contributing to the overall coherence of the Report. The structure provides a roadmap for the writer, ensuring that essential points are covered systematically. Clear headings and subheadings delineate different topics, enhancing readability. A structured Report improves comprehension and reflects the writer's professionalism and attention to detail, making the document more impactful and persuasive to its intended audience. 

Recommendations  

Recommendations in Report Writing are crucial suggestions based on the findings and analysis. These actionable insights offer practical solutions, strategies, or actions that address the issues highlighted in the Report. Recommendations are grounded in evidence, making them credible and valuable for decision-makers.    

Well-crafted recommendations are specific, feasible, and tailored to the context, providing a clear pathway for implementing changes or improvements. They serve as a guide for stakeholders, helping them make informed choices and take adequate measures. The quality and relevance of recommendations often determine the Report's impact, as they empower organisations and individuals to make positive changes based on the Report's insights. 

Objectivity  

Objectivity in Report Writing refers to presenting information and analysis in an unbiased, impartial, and fair manner. It demands writers separate personal opinions or emotions from presenting facts and findings. Objective Reports rely on empirical evidence, verifiable data, and expert opinions, ensuring the content is reliable and credible.   

By maintaining objectivity, the writer establishes trust with the readers, enabling them to form opinions based on the presented information. Objectivity is essential in research and professional contexts, allowing for an accurate representation of reality and fostering a balanced, rational discussion of the topic.  

Are you interested in improving your Report Writing skills? Register now for our Report Writing Training !  

Steps to write a Report  

Writing a comprehensive Report involves structured steps that ensure the document is well-organised, informative, and coherent. Here's a detailed overview of the essential steps to write a Report: 

a) Define purpose : Clarify the Report's objectives and scope. 

b) Research : Gather relevant information from credible sources.  

c) Organise : Structure the Report with clear sections and headings. 

d) Write introduction : Provide context, purpose, and research questions. 

e) Methodology : Explain research methods and data collection processes.  

f) Present findings : Display data using visuals, charts, or tables.  

g) Analysis : Interpret results, discuss trends, and draw connections. 

h) Conclusions : Summarise critical points, answering research questions.  

i) Recommendations : Suggest actionable solutions based on findings.  

j) Edit and proofread : Revise for clarity, coherence, and accuracy.  

Do you want to show your creativity and hone your writing talents? Sign up now for our Creative Writing Training !  

Conclusion  

Understanding the art of Report Writing is essential for effective communication. There are some Features of Report Writing which, when followed, can be efficiently prepared. These features include following a structured approach, defining clear objectives, conducting thorough research, and presenting findings logically and objectively. 

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  • CBSE Guide /

Report Writing

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  • Updated on  
  • Nov 4, 2023

Report Writing

The term “report” refers to a nonfiction work that presents and/or paraphrases the facts on a specific occasion, subject, or problem. The notion is that a good report will contain all the information that someone who is not familiar with the subject needs to know. Reports make it simple to bring someone up to speed on a subject, but actually writing a report is far from simple. This blog will walk you through the fundamentals of report writing, including the structure and practice themes.

This Blog Includes:

What is a report, reporting formats, newspaper or magazine reports, business reports, technical reports, what is report writing, report writing: things to keep in mind, structure of report writing, magazine vs newspaper report writing format, report writing format for class 10th to 12th, report writing example, report writing for school students: practice questions, report writing slideshare.

  • Report Writing in 7 steps

Also Read: Message Writing

A report is a short document written for a particular purpose or audience. It usually sets out and analyses a problem often recommended for future purposes. Requirements for the precise form of the report depend on the department and organization. Technically, a report is defined as “any account, verbal or written, of the matters pertaining to a given topic.” This could be used to describe anything, from a witness’s evidence in court to a student’s book report.

Actually, when people use the word “report,” they usually mean official documents that lay out the details of a subject. These documents are typically written by an authority on the subject or someone who has been tasked with conducting research on it. Although there are other forms of reports, which are discussed in the following section, they primarily fulfil this definition.

What information does reporting contain? All facts are appreciated, but reports, in particular, frequently contain the following kinds of information:

  • Information about a circumstance or event
  • The aftereffects or ongoing impact of an incident or occurrence
  • Analytical or statistical data evaluation
  • Interpretations based on the report’s data
  • Based on the report’s information, make predictions or suggestions
  • Relationships between the information and other reports or events

Although there are some fundamental differences, producing reports and essays share many similarities. Both rely on facts, but essays also include the author’s personal viewpoints and justifications. Reports normally stick to the facts only, however, they could include some of the author’s interpretation in the conclusion.

Reports are also quite well ordered, frequently with tables of contents of headers and subheadings. This makes it simpler for readers to quickly scan reports for the data they need. Essays, on the other hand, should be read from beginning to end rather than being perused for particular information.

Depending on the objective and audience for your report, there are a few distinct types of reports. The most typical report types are listed briefly below:

  • Academic report: Examines a student’s knowledge of the subject; examples include book reports, historical event reports, and biographies.
  • Identifies data from company reports, such as marketing reports, internal memoranda, SWOT analyses, and feasibility reports, that is useful in corporate planning.
  • Shares research findings in the form of case studies and research articles, usually in scientific publications.

Depending on how they are written, reports can be further categorised. A report, for instance, could be professional or casual, brief or lengthy, and internal or external. A lateral report is for persons on the author’s level but in separate departments, whereas a vertical report is for those on the author’s level but with different levels of the hierarchy (i.e., people who work above you and below you).

Report formats can be as varied as writing styles, but in this manual, we’ll concentrate on academic reports, which are often formal and informational.

Also Read: How to Write a Leave Application?

Major Types of Reports

While the most common type of reports corresponds to the ones we read in newspapers and magazines, there are other kinds of reports that are curated for business or research purposes. Here are the major forms of report writing that you must know about:

The main purpose of newspaper or magazine reports is to cover a particular event or happening. They generally elaborate upon the 4Ws and 1H, i.e. What, Where, When, Why, and How. The key elements of newspaper or magazine report writing are as follows:

  • Headline (Title)
  • Report’s Name, Place, and Date
  • Conclusion (Citation of sources)

Here is an example of a news report:

Credit: Pinterest

Business reports aim to analyze a situation or case study by implementing business theories and suggest improvements accordingly. In business report writing, you must adhere to a formal style of writing and these reports are usually lengthier than news reports since they aim to assess a particular issue in detail and provide solutions. The basic structure of business reports includes:

  • Table of Contents
  • Executive summary
  • Findings/Recommendations

The main purpose of the technical report is to provide an empirical explanation of research-based material. Technical report writing is generally carried out by a researcher for scientific journals or product development and presentation, etc. A technical report mainly contains 

  • Introduction
  • Experimental details
  • Results and discussions
  • Body (elaborating upon the findings)

Must Read: IELTS Writing Tips

A report is a written record of what you’ve seen, heard, done, or looked into. It is a well-organized and methodical presentation of facts and results from an event that has already occurred. Reports are a sort of written assessment that is used to determine what you have learned through your reading, study, or experience, as well as to provide you with hands-on experience with a crucial skill that is often used in the business.

Before writing a report, there are certain things you must know to ensure that you draft a precise and structured report, and these points to remember are listed below:

  • Write a concise and clear title of the report.
  • Always use the past tense.
  • Don’t explain the issue in the first person, i.e. ‘I’ or ‘Me’. Always write in the third person.
  • Put the date, name of the place as well as the reporter’s name after the heading.
  • Structure the report by dividing it into paragraphs.
  • Stick to the facts and keep it descriptive.

Must Read: IELTS Sample Letters

The format of a report is determined by the kind of report it is and the assignment’s requirements. While reports can have their own particular format, the majority use the following general framework:

  • Executive summary: A stand-alone section that highlights the findings in your report so that readers will know what to expect, much like an abstract in an academic paper. These are more frequently used for official reports than for academic ones.
  • Introduction: Your introduction introduces the main subject you’re going to explore in the report, along with your thesis statement and any previous knowledge that is necessary before you get into your own results.
  • Body: Using headings and subheadings, the report’s body discusses all of your significant findings. The majority of the report is made up of the body; in contrast to the introduction and conclusion, which are each only a few paragraphs long, the body can span many pages.
  • In the conclusion, you should summarize all the data in your report and offer a clear interpretation or conclusion. Usually, the author inserts their own personal judgments or inferences here.

Report Writing Formats

It is quintessential to follow a proper format in report writing to provide it with a compact structure. Business reports and technical reports don’t have a uniform structure and are generally based on the topic or content they are elaborating on. Let’s have a look at the proper format of report writing generally for news and magazines and the key elements you must add to a news report:

To Read: How to Learn Spoken English?

The report writing structure for students in grades 10 and 12 is as follows.

  • Heading :  A title that expresses the contents of the report in a descriptive manner.
  • Byline : The name of the person who is responsible for drafting the report. It’s usually included in the query. Remember that you are not allowed to include any personal information in your response.
  •  (introduction) : The ‘5 Ws,’ or WHAT, WHY, WHEN, and WHERE, as well as WHO was invited as the main guest, might be included.
  • The account of the event in detail : The order in which events occurred, as well as their descriptions. It is the primary paragraph, and if necessary, it can be divided into two smaller paragraphs.
  • Conclusion : This will give a summary of the event’s conclusion. It might include quotes from the Chief Guest’s address or a summary of the event’s outcome.

Credit: sampletemplates.com

Credit: SlideShare

Now that you are familiar with all the formats of report writing, here are some questions that you can practice to understand the structure and style of writing a report.

  • You are a student of Delhi Public School Srinagar handling a campus magazine in an editorial role. On the increasing level of global warming, write a report on the event for your school magazine. 
  • On the Jammu-Srinagar highway, a mishap took place, where a driver lost his control and skidded off into a deep gorge. Write a report on it and include all the necessary details and eyewitness accounts. 
  • As a reporter for the Delhi Times, you are assigned to report on the influx of migrants coming from other states of the country. Take an official statement to justify your report.
  • There is a cultural program in Central Park Rajiv Chowk New Delhi. The home minister of India is supposed to attend the event apart from other delegates. Report the event within the 150-200 word limit. 
  • Write today’s trend of COVID-19 cases in India. As per the official statement. include all the necessary details and factual information. Mention the state with a higher number of cases so far.
  • In Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi, a table tennis tournament was held between Delhi Public School New Delhi and DPS Punjab. Report the event in 250-300 words.

Also Read: Formal Letter Format, Types & Samples

Credits: Slideshare

Report Writ ing in 7 steps

  • Choose a topic based on the assignment
  • Conduct research
  • Write a thesis statement
  • Prepare an outline
  • Write a rough draft
  • Revise and edit your report
  • Proofread and check for mistakes

Make sure that every piece of information you have supplied is pertinent. Remember to double-check your grammar, spelling, tenses, and the person you are writing in. A final inspection against any structural criteria is also important. You have appropriately and completely referenced academic work. Check to make sure you haven’t unintentionally, purposefully, or both duplicated something without giving credit.

Related Articles

Any business professional’s toolkit must include business reports. Therefore, how can you create a thorough business report? You must first confirm that you are familiar with the responses to the following three questions.

Every company report starts with an issue that needs to be fixed. This could be something straightforward, like figuring out a better way to organise procuring office supplies, or it could be a more challenging issue, like putting in place a brand-new, multimillion-dollar computer system.

You must therefore compile the data you intend to include in your report. How do you do this? If you’ve never conducted in-depth research before, it can be quite a daunting task, so discovering the most efficient techniques is a real plus.

Hopefully, this blog has helped you with a comprehensive understanding of report writing and its essential components. Aiming to pursue a degree in Writing? Sign up for an e-meeting with our experts at Leverage Edu and we will help you in selecting the best course and university as well as sorting the admission process to ensure that you get successfully shortlisted.

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Ankita Mishra

A writer with more than 10 years of experience, including 5 years in a newsroom, Ankita takes great pleasure in helping students via study abroad news updates about universities and visa policies. When not busy working you can find her creating memes and discussing social issues with her colleagues.

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Writing a report

Topic outline.

The purpose of a report is often to present relevant information in an ordered way and to make carefully considered suggestions based on that information.

Reports are usually a mixture of fact and opinion, reflecting on key facts and details to offer suggestions to the reader.

Reports can also be used to offer an objective view of a situation, proposing alternatives for the reader to consider.

For example, reports in a workplace might include statistics to support different plans for the future of the business so that people can decide on the best option.

The audience of a report is often someone in charge, for example a teacher, or an employer, so the language and tone of a report tends to be more formal.

  • think about the audience that the report is for – are you writing this report for one reader, or for a group of people such as the organisers of an event?
  • the impression you want your reader to have of you – usually a report should be impersonal and relatively formal since you are writing to someone who is in charge. You would not normally use slang or contractions ( such as don’t or can’t) .It is usually best to avoid attempts at humour or sarcasm
  • the purpose for the report – you may have been asked to make suggestions or recommendations in your report based on personal experience, or to offer an overview of a more complex situation. Try to include a range of topic related vocabulary used appropriately
  • how to reassure your reader that your report is going to be useful – i magine if your report was full of emotive words and personal appeals based on your own viewpoint, your reader might not be convinced that you were offering them an objective and accurate evaluation. For your report to be effective you will need to sound calm and polite.
  • Identify and group the key information, facts and details your report needs to include before you start writing – the structure of a report is usually in three parts. For example:
  • An overview – briefly introduce the topic of the report and the key areas you will consider. Your reader should be able to understand what you will be writing about and why by just reading this section.
  • A middle – develop and support the relevant facts and opinions about the topic that you or others have noticed.
  • An end – offer a brief summary of your suggestions, recommendations or solutions. Here you might like to include any new points you think should be considered in the future .
  • Organise different aspects of the report into paragraphs as appropriate – this will help you to explain, develop and support your points.
  • Help your reader to locate the information they need more easily – a report should be well-organised and clear. Reports often use headings to show the reader what information can be found in each section. Sometimes bullet points might also be used to highlight key information to the reader. Do not overdo these, but a precise, short, bulleted list can help to draw your reader’s attention to the key points you are making.
  • Connect the points you are making logically – for example, where you are offering suggestions based on points you made earlier you might use a linking word or phrase such as ‘in conclusion’, ‘as a consequence’ or ‘finally’.
  • Example of a report

in report writing

Geektonight

What is Report Writing? Parts, Types, Structure, Process

  • Post last modified: 4 June 2023
  • Reading time: 30 mins read
  • Post category: Business Communication

What is Report Writing?

Report writing is a formal style of presenting objective facts and information. There can be various types of reports, such as academic reports, science reports, business reports, technical reports, and news reports. A report can be verbal or written. However, a written report is more formal than a verbal report.

What is Report Writing

Table of Content

  • 1 What is Report Writing?
  • 2 Report Writing Definition
  • 3 Report Writing Advantage
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Background
  • 4.3 Findings
  • 4.4 Conclusions
  • 4.5 Recommendations
  • 5.1 Informational reports
  • 5.2 Analytical reports
  • 5.3 News reports
  • 6.2 Remaining details
  • 6.3 Informational news report
  • 6.4 Analytical news report
  • 6.5 Additional details
  • 6.6 Concluding sentence
  • 7.1 Identify
  • 7.2 Research
  • 7.3 Organise
  • 8 Feasibility Reports
  • 9.1 Cover letter
  • 9.2 Executive summary
  • 9.3 Proposal
  • 9.4 Pricing information
  • 9.5 Terms and conditions

Report Writing Definition

Report writing is the process of organizing and presenting information in a clear, concise, and objective manner for a specific audience. It involves gathering data, analyzing it, and presenting it in a format that is easy to understand and relevant to the topic at hand. – The University of Wisconsin Writing Center

Report writing is the art of communicating information that has been acquired through research or investigation in a formal, structured manner. It involves synthesizing information, drawing conclusions, and making recommendations based on the findings. – The American Management Association

Report writing is the process of creating a document that provides information, analysis, and recommendations on a particular topic or issue. It requires the ability to organize and present data in a logical and meaningful way, as well as to convey complex ideas in a clear and concise manner. – The International Business Communication Standards (IBCS)

Report Writing Advantage

A written report also provides the following advantages:

  • A written report presents a formal record of a transaction, which is not possible in a verbal report.
  • A written report conveys a message without any distortion. On the other hand, a message can be easily misrepresented in a verbal report.
  • A written report is more convenient for lengthy and distant communication.
  • A written report requires a reader to think before responding to a message.
  • Facts, figures and statistical data can be better represented graphically in a written report.

However, writing a report is not as easy as drafting a formal e-mail. A report is a brief, precise document. It is written for a specific audience with some specific objective. To write a report, you need to first thoroughly understand the purpose of report writing, then research information from various sources, verify the validity of information, analyse information, and then present findings or results. These findings must be reported objectively without personal biases.

A well-written report must have an effective objective analysis. Based on the analysis, you can recommend possible courses of action for the future. However, it is up to the report reader to accept the recommendations.

Therefore, while report writing, you must pay attention to why you are writing the report and who has asked you to write the report. This will help you investigate the information appropriately.

Parts of a Report

Following are the main sections of a formal report :

Introduction

Conclusions, recommendations.

This section indicates the purpose of the report, who has ordered the report, how the data is collected, and whether any recommendations are provided. In addition, the introduction section may also provide information on who has written the report and the date on which it is submitted.

This section provides the background of a problem or a situation on which the report is written. In case the report is too lengthy, then instead of introduction, an executive summary should be written.

The purpose of an executive summary is to enable top executives and managers to get a quick snapshot of a long report without reading the entire report. Therefore, the executive summary comes before introduction. Of course, then there would be no background section.

This is the longest section of a report, which is written after the investigation is over. This section presents factual information without any interpretation or suggestions.

Each finding is summarised as a conclusion in this section. In the above sample report, there are four conclusions based on the summary of each paragraph in the findings section. These conclusions are listed numerically in the same order as the corresponding findings.

The final section provides a numbered list of recommendations, which are based on the list of the conclusion. Each recommendation uses the verb should. This is because the writer is simply giving suggestions and not making a decision. Therefore, the verb should is used instead of the verb will. However, there are exceptions:

  • To give a strong recommendation: Use the verb must. For example, ‘The team managers must ensure that the break hours are not shortened.’
  • To give a weak recommendation: Use the verb could. For example, ‘Having a coffee dispenser in the facility could boost the staff morale.’

Types of Reports

Reports exist in our academics and workplaces in so many forms that we may not even be aware of them. For example, a student submits a laboratory report to communicate the methods and results of scientific experiments conducted in a lab.

Academicians and business people use research reports to view scientific studies of an issue or a problem. Policy-makers read field study reports to read about the ground situation from branch offices and manufacturing plants. Similarly, there are progress reports, technical reports, functional reports, case studies, etc.

All these reports share the attributes, principles, and format of report writing, which are described above. These reports can be organised into three groups:

Informational reports

Analytical reports, news reports.

An informational report is used to objectively present information without any analysis. Examples of informational reports include the First Information Report (FIR), annual reports, monthly financial reports, or employee attrition reports. These reports only report the facts as they are.

For example, the police write an FIR to record details about a cognisable offence, such as personal details of the complainant/informant, place, date and time of occurrence, offence, description of the accused, witnesses, and complaint.

Similarly, a company presents an annual report to its shareholders to present details of its business activities and finances of the previous financial year. An informational report presents objective facts without analysing the reasons and conditions behind the reported situation.

For example, if someone wants to study information on a field trip, then he can ask for a site visit report. Similarly, if a manager wants to view the feedback of a training programme, then he can ask for the training feedback report from the trainer. If the head of a department wants to get an update on the different projects in his department, he can ask for progress reports from different project managers.

An analytical report evaluates a problem or an issue and presents the outcomes of analysis to explain the causes of the problem, demonstrate relationships, or make recommendations.

For example, a scientific or market research report studies a problem scientifically by developing a hypothesis, gathering data, analysing data, and presenting findings and conclusions.

Similarly, a feasibility analysis report studies a problem and predicts whether the current solution or alternatives will be practical or will produce the desired outcome. Whenever you need to make a critical decision, then an analytical report is prepared. These reports help the decision-maker(s) analyse the prevailing situation.

For example, a company wants to decide where to open a branch office in a particular area. In this situation, an analytical report can evaluate the details of the property, such as infrastructure, land cost, competitive stores, etc., and then recommend the best site from the available options.

If you are working as or aspire to be a journalist, then you may need to write a press report. A press report is a newsworthy article in a newspaper, magazine or website. It is different from the press release by companies. A press release is an official statement of a company on an important subject or event. A press release generally focuses on one particular subject, such as a milestone, a launch, an anniversary, etc.

On the other hand, a press report discusses the subject in detail. A press release is a marketing tool used by companies to keep the general public and the media updated about its newsworthy occasions. It helps build a company’s visibility in the minds of its customers and community at large.

A press release is generally prepared by a company’s marketing or Public Relations (PR) team, whereas a press report is written by an independent journalist. Therefore, a press report presents more objective information than a press release, which is a company’s promotional mouthpiece. Just like informational and analytical reports, a press report requires considerable research on a subject before it is written credibly.

The author must ask the 5 Ws and 1 H – who, what, where, why, when, and how. Questions arise in the following manner:

  • What happened?
  • Where did it happen?
  • When did it happen?
  • Who was involved?
  • Why did it happen?
  • How did it happen?

After finding the answers, he must note down all the relevant facts that must be mentioned in the news report. These facts can be organised into the following three groups:

  • Vital and interesting facts
  • Not vital but interesting facts
  • Not vital, not interesting, but related facts

By organising information into the above groups, the author will be able to include all the relevant facts into the news report. The facts must be specific. If there are gaps in the story and the related information is not available, then questions can be marked against them so that these can be researched further.

Next, the author must decide the type of news report he wants to write – informational or analytical. The former will provide objective and straightforward information, whereas the latter will also provide the author’s opinion on the subject.

After determining the type of news report to write, the author must create an outline or structure of the report. The most common structure is an inverted triangle, where the most important information is at the top.

A news report must provide the information that the readers want as soon as possible. If the news report is for a newspaper, then the most important news must be above the “fold”. The “fold” is the crease in the newspaper when it is folded in half. All the engaging stories are above the fold. Similarly, on a website, the most important information is at the top of the screen before one has to scroll down.

A news report must be written according to the audience. The author should ask the 5Ws with respect to the audience reaction, such as:

  • Who is the audience?
  • Where is the audience?
  • What does the audience want to read?
  • Why do they want to read it?
  • When will they read it?

Structure of News Report

Finally, the structure of a news report is as follows:

Remaining details

Informational news report, analytical news report, additional details, concluding sentence.

The leading sentence of a news report is the most important section. It should tell what the news report is all about, why it is important, and what information the rest of the news report provides.

These provide the basic information of what happened, where it happened, when it happened, who was involved, and why it was remarkable.

In this report, the remaining details provide more information about the newsworthy item.

In this report, the remaining details also provide the opinion of the author.

These details help the reader learn more about the newsworthy item, such as additional facts about the subject, contact information, or interview quotes. These details comprise transitional elements that help build the flow of information. In an analytical report, these can also include counter-arguments and their authors.

The news report should end with a concluding sentence, which repeats the leading statement or a statement mentioning future developments.

Report Writing Process

This process will ensure that your report is accurate, clear, comprehensive and credible.

Before writing a report, identify the following parameters:

  • Issue or problem : Identify the issue or problem to analyse.
  • Audience : Identify who the audience is. Find out their background information. Determine why they would want to read the report.
  • Purpose : Determine the purpose for which the report will be used.
  • Scope and limitations : Identify the scope of the report. Determine the limitations of report writing.
  • Expectations : Determine expectations regarding the format or structure of the report. Identify the models available for report writing. Determine whether there is a style guide and/or a marketing guide.

To research the facts or information for report writing:

  • Plan : Make a draft plan on how to analyse the problem and present the objective of the report.
  • Collect data: Collect information based on the purpose of the report.
  • Analyse : Finally, analyse and evaluate the collected information.

After gathering and analysing the required information, organise it as follows:

  • Main points : Identify the main points of the report. These main points should be supported by adequate evidence.
  • Additional information : Identify the supporting information that analyses and confirms the main points. This information should be placed in appendices.
  • Logical structure : Organise the entire information into a logical structure to help the readers easily navigate to the desired part of the report.
  • Write : After deciding the logical structure of the report, fill in the elements of the report, including executive summary, main body, introduction and conclusion.
  • Revise : Finally, verify if it is appropriate for the problem, audience, and purpose.

Feasibility Reports

A feasibility report is a written document that analyses the proposed solution and examines whether it is feasible considering various types of constraints such as financial, social, environmental, social, technical, and legal that can make it impossible for a solution to be opted.

Feasibility reports assess the practicality of following a particular course of action for a project. It advises whether it will be feasible to opt for a particular course of action or will this proposal or plan work? These are written internal reports that advise on consolidating departments or to organise a wellness programme for employees or to outsource company’s accounting or social media or to move the manufacturing unit to a new location.

Some companies hire a professional consultant to write feasibility reports in order to investigate a problem. These reports help in deciding whether to proceed or reject the proposed option.

  • Overview of the Project
  • Objectives of the Project
  • The Need for the Project
  • Overview of Existing Systems and Technologies
  • Scope of the Project
  • Deliverables
  • Financial Feasibility
  • Technical Feasibility
  • Resource and Time Feasibility
  • Risk Feasibility
  • Social/Legal Feasibility
  • Considerations

Proposal Writing

A business proposal is defined as a written document from a seller that offers a particular service or product to a prospective buyer. Business proposals are important in scenarios where a buyer might consider multiple prices in a transaction.

A good business proposal considers the buyer’s requirements and puts forth the seller’s proposal in a way that favours the seller’s products and services, and persuades the buyer about the offer. A business proposal is a critical document as it determines the difference between success and failure in a venture. Business proposals can be:

  • Solicited : These are requested by clients themselves or submitted in response to an advertisement published by the client. Solicited business proposals generally have a better chance of success since they are tailored to the requirements of the person receiving the proposal.
  • Unsolicited : These are submitted to potential clients even though they did not request for one. These are non-specific proposals and have no direct connection to the client’s requirements. Sellers use them to market a product or service to a prospective customer.

Because proposals are time-consuming, it is the best to start with available templates if possible. You will save a lot of time if you start with a proposal template that matches what you need and then customise it according to your requirements.

A business proposal includes various sections which are defined as follows:

Cover letter

Executive summary, pricing information, terms and conditions.

In the other article, you studied writing cover letters for a job application. A business proposal also needs a cover letter because a good cover letter will stimulate interest in the proposal. Make sure to highlight your positives and personalise them to the client to whom you are sending the business proposal.

This is where you give the client a ‘problem statement’ to help him identify the challenges and requirements in his business. This is because in order to persuade the client to do business with you, you first need to make sure that the client realises they have those needs. Then you briefly state how you will be able to help them meet those requirements.

The proposal is the part where you offer a detailed solution to the challenges and needs of the prospective client. This is the main reason for submitting a business proposal so it should be as detailed as possible, addressing all the needs of the client.

You should explain to the client all services that you can provide. You should tailor your list of services to suit the particular client’s needs but include other services that you may provide. Also include an estimated project schedule and time frame.

Most buyers consider the price of services before offering a contract. Thus, getting accurate pricing information is crucial. However, two points must be kept in mind. One it is important to be exact with the pricing and the second is to never negotiate below what you think the project is worth.

For smaller projects, a ‘fee summary’ will do the job. But a ‘fee schedule’ is needed for bigger projects, where payments need to be broken down to specific milestones.

It is in your interest to get legal counsel to review the proposal as this will cover your business against claims.

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Report Writing And Its Significance In Your Career

You reach the office at around 9.00 AM, switch on your system, and start working. It’s a usual workday for…

Report Writing And Its Significance In Your Career

You reach the office at around 9.00 AM, switch on your system, and start working. It’s a usual workday for you until your manager comes to your desk and asks you to create a sales report. That’s the first time you’ve got such a task, and find yourself struggling with basic questions such as, “What’s a report?” and “How do I write one?”

What Is Report Writing?

Elements of report writing, importance of report writing.

You must have heard the term ‘report writing’ before.

According to the commonly known definition of report writing, a report is a formal document that elaborates on a topic using facts, charts, and graphs to support its arguments and findings.

Any report—whether it’s about a business event or one that describes the processes of various departments in a company—is meant for a particular type of audience.

But why do you think your manager wants you to create a report?

One simple answer is: an elaborate report prepared with evaluated facts helps solve complex problems. When managers come across certain business situations, they ask for comprehensive and well-thought-out reports that can help them design business plans.

Once you have an idea about what a report is, the next step is to understand how you can write one.

There are different types of reports, and each has a specific structure, usually known as ‘elements of the report’.

While we tell you what the elements of report writing are, if you want detailed guidance, you can go for Harappa Education’s Writing Proficiently course that talks about the popular PREP (Point of starting, Reason, Evidence, and Point of ending) model of report writing.

Every report starts with a title page and a table of contents, after which come the main sections–the executive summary, introduction, discussion, and conclusion.

Executive Summary:

Do you remember summary writing for English class during school days? You were asked to read a story or passage and write a summary, including the important takeaways. ( ambien )

That’s exactly what you are expected to do in a report’s executive summary section. This section presents a brief overview of the report’s contents. You should present the key points of the report in this section.

But why is it important to write an executive summary at the start of the report?

Firstly, the summary will help readers better understand the purpose, key points, and evidence you are going to present in the report. Secondly, readers who are in a hurry can read the summary for a preview of the report.

Here are some specifics that will help you write a clear and concise summary:

Include the purpose of your report and emphasize conclusions or recommendations.

Include only the essential or most significant information to support your theories and conclusions.

Follow the same sequence of information that you have used in the report.

Keep the summary length to 10-15% of the complete report.

Try not to introduce any new information or point in summary that you haven’t covered in the report.

The summary should communicate the message clearly and independently.

Introduction:  

The introduction section should:

Briefly describe the background and context of the research you have done.

Describe the change, problem, or issue related to the topic.

Define the relevant objectives and purpose of the report

Give hints about the overall answer to the problem covered in the report.

Comment on the limitations and any assumptions you have made to get to the conclusion.

Discussion:

This section serves two purposes:

It justifies the recommendations.

It explains the conclusions.

While you are writing the discussion section, make sure you do the following:

Present your analysis logically.

If needed, divide the information under appropriate headings to improving readability and ease of understanding.

Explain your points and back up your claims with strong and evaluated evidence.

Connect your theory with real-life scenarios

Conclusion:

The last key element of report writing is the conclusion section. Present the conclusion as follows:

  • The primary conclusion should come first.

Identify and interpret the major problems related to the case your report is based on.

Relate to the objectives that you have mentioned in the introduction.

Keep the conclusion brief and specific.

Before you start writing a report, it’s important to understand the significance of the report. It’s also crucial to research independently instead of relying on data and trends available on the internet, besides structuring the report properly. Here’s why:

Decision-Making Tool

Organizations require a considerable amount of data and information on specific topics, scenarios, and situations. Managers and decision-makers often use business reports and research papers as information sources to make important business decisions and reach solutions.

Another reason that adds to the significance of report writing is that it is a collection of evaluated information.

Different types of activities by different departments define an organization. Think of the departments your organization has–development, sales, distribution, marketing, HR, and more. Each department follows defined processes and protocols that require many small and large activities on a daily basis.

It is impossible for the management to keep an eye on the different activities in each department.

That’s where the reports can help. With every department writing and maintaining periodic reports, keeping a tab of ongoing activities becomes easier for the management.

Professional Improvements

During the annual appraisal cycle, your manager will ask you to write reports to explain your position, level of work, and performance.

If you have ever wondered how your manager decided to promote your colleague and not you, the answer may lie in his well-presented report.

Quick Source For Problem-Solving

There’s no denying that managers require accurate information on various topics to make quick decisions. Often due to urgency, managers only rely on business reports as an authentic source of information. Almost every employee would have witnessed a situation that needed the manager’s attention urgently. Reports come in handy during such situations.

Report writing is a significant exercise in many ways for your professional life. If you are not well-versed with it already, you must start working on your report writing skills now. For more help or guidance to learn this new skill, sign up for Harappa’s Writing Proficiently course.

Make the most of your time at home and master this new skill. Work on many assignments, improve your skills, and become a pro at report writing.

Explore our Harappa Diaries section to learn more about topics related to the Communicate habit such as the Importance of Writing Skills and the Cycle of Communication .

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What is Report Writing: Format, Examples, Types & Process

  • Table of Contents

Many professionals struggle to create effective reports due to a lack of understanding of the essential elements and organization required. This can lead to frustration and a failure to communicate key information to the intended audience.

In this blog, we’ll explore what is report writing, the types of reports, essential elements, and tips for creating effective reports to help you communicate your message and achieve your goals.

Definition of report writing? 

According to Mary Munter and Lynn Hamilton, authors of “Guide to Managerial Communication,” report writing is “the process of selecting, organizing, interpreting, and communicating information to meet a specific objective.”

What is report writing? 

Report writing refers to the process of creating a document that represents information in a clear and concise manner. Reports can be written for various purposes, such as providing updates on a project, analyzing data or presenting findings, or making recommendations.

Effective report writing requires careful planning, research, analysis, and organization of information. A well-structured report should be accurate, and objective, and contain a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. It should also be written in a professional and accessible style, with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, tables, graphs, and other visual aids.

Overall, report writing is an important skill for professionals in many fields, as it helps to communicate information and insights in a clear and concise manner.

What is a report? 

A report is a formal document that is structured and presented in an organized manner, with the aim of conveying information, analyzing data, and providing recommendations. It is often used to communicate findings and outcomes to a specific audience, such as stakeholders, or managers. Reports can vary in length and format, but they usually contain a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.

What are the features of report writing

There are several key features of effective report writing that can help ensure that the information presented is clear, concise, and useful. Some of these features include:

1/ Clarity: Reports should be written in clear and concise language, avoiding jargon or technical terms that may be confusing to the reader. 

2/ Objectivity: A report should be objective, meaning that it should be free from bias or personal opinions. This is particularly important when presenting data or analysis.

3/ Accuracy: Reports should be based on reliable sources and accurate data. Information should be verified and cross-checked to ensure that it is correct and up-to-date.

4/ Structure: A report should be structured in a logical and organized manner, with clear headings, subheadings, and sections. 

5/ Visual aids: A report may include visual aids such as charts, tables, and graphs, which can help to illustrate the key points and make the information easier to understand.

6/ Evidence: Reports should include evidence to support any claims or findings, such as statistics, quotes, or references to relevant literature.

7/ Recommendations: Many reports include recommendations or suggestions for future action based on the findings or analysis presented.

Significance of report writing

Report writing is a critical skill that can have a significant impact on individuals, and organizations. In fact, a report by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that the ability to communicate effectively, including report writing, was the most important skill sought by employers.

  • Reports provide decision-makers with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Effective report writing demonstrates professionalism and attention to detail, which can help to build trust and credibility with clients.
  • Reports can inform planning processes by providing data and insights that can be used to develop strategies and allocate resources.
  • Reports often include recommendations or suggestions for future action, which can help to improve processes, procedures, or outcomes.
Further Reading: What is the significance of report writing

Types of report writing

By understanding the different types of report writing, individuals can select the appropriate format and structure to effectively communicate information and achieve their objectives. However, the kind of report used will depend on the purpose, audience, and context of the report.

1/ Informational reports: These reports provide information about a topic, such as a product, service, or process.

Further Reading : What is an information report

2/ Analytical reports: These reports present data or information in a structured and organized manner, often with charts, graphs, or tables, to help the reader understand trends, patterns, or relationships.

3/ Formal Reports: These are detailed and structured reports written for a specific audience, often with a specific objective. In comparison with informal reports , formal reports are typically longer and more complex than other types of reports. 

4/ Progress reports: These reports provide updates on a project or initiative, detailing the progress made and any challenges or obstacles encountered. 

5/ Technical reports: These reports provide technical information, such as specifications, designs, or performance data, often aimed at a technical audience.

6/ Research reports: These reports present the findings of research conducted on a particular topic or issue, often including a literature review, data analysis, and conclusions.

7/ Feasibility Report: A feasibility report assesses the likelihood of achieving success for a suggested project or initiative.

8/ Business Reports: These reports are used in a business setting to communicate information about a company’s performance, operations, or strategies. Different types of business reports include financial statements, marketing reports, and annual reports.

Structure of report writing 

The structure of a report refers to the overall organization and layout of the report, including the sections and subsections that make up the report, their order, and their relationships to each other. A report can we divided into three parts. 

Preliminary Parts:

  • Acknowledgments (Preface or Foreword)
  • List of Tables and Illustrations
  • Introduction (clear statement of research objectives, background information, hypotheses, methodology, statistical analysis, scope of study, limitations)
  • Statement of findings and recommendations (summarized findings, non-technical language)
  • Results (detailed presentation of findings with supporting data in the form of tables and charts, statistical summaries, and reductions of data, presented in a logical sequence)
  • Implications of the results (clearly stated implications that flow from the results of the study)
  • Summary (brief summary of the research problem, methodology, major findings, and major conclusions)

End Matter:

  • Appendices (technical data such as questionnaires, sample information, and mathematical derivations)
  • Bibliography of sources consulted.

This structure provides a clear and organized framework for presenting a research report, ensuring that all important information is included and presented in a logical and easy-to-follow manner.

Extra Learnings Role of a report structure in report writing  The report structure plays a crucial role in report writing as it provides a clear and organized framework for presenting information in an effective and logical manner. It ensures that the reader can easily understand the purpose and scope of the report, locate and access the relevant information.  The preliminary parts of the report, provide an overview of the report and aid navigation. The main text makes it easier for the reader to comprehend and analyze the information. And The end matter provides additional details and sources for reference. An organized report structure also helps the author to communicate their research and ideas effectively to the intended audience.

What is the report writing format? 

The format of report writing refers to the structure of a formal document that provides information on a particular topic or issue. The format typically includes several components that must be there in the report to provide specific subjects in an organized and structured format. 

8 Essential elements of report writing are: 

1/ Title page: This includes the title of the report, the author’s name, the date of submission, and other relevant information.

2/ Table of contents: The table of contents lists the report’s primary sections and subsections, together with their corresponding page numbers.

3/ Executive summary: An executive summary gives a concise summary of the report, emphasizing the significant conclusions and recommendations.

4/ Introduction: This provides background information on the topic or issue, explains the purpose and scope of the report, and outlines the methodology used.

5/ Main body: This is where the bulk of the information is presented, usually divided into several sections and sub-sections. The main body may include data, analysis, and discussion of the topic or issue.

6/ Conclusion: This Summarizes the primary discoveries of the report and offers conclusions or recommendations accordingly.

7/ References: This lists the sources cited in the report, following a particular citation style such as APA, MLA, or Chicago.

8/ Appendices: This includes any additional materials such as charts, tables, graphs, or other supporting data.

The specific format and structure of a report may vary depending on the purpose, audience, and type of report.

Report writing examples and samples

Annual-Business-Report-of-Reliance-industries

Example of Progress Report

Sample-of-progress-report

The essential process of report writing

Report writing requires careful planning, organization, and analysis to ensure that the report effectively communicates the intended message to the audience. Here are the general steps involved in the process of report writing:

Plan and prepare:

  • Identify the purpose of the report, the target audience, and the scope of the report.
  • Collect and examine data from different sources, including research studies, surveys, or interviews.
  • Create an outline of the report, including headings and subheadings.

Write the introduction:

  • Start with a brief summary of the report and its purpose.
  • Provide background information and context for the report.
  • Explain the research methodology and approach used.

Write the main body:

  • Divide the report into logical sections, each with a clear heading.
  • Present the findings and analysis of the research in a clear and organized manner.
  • Use appropriate visual aids, such as tables, graphs, or charts to present data and information.
  • Utilize a language that is both clear and Brief, and avoid using unnecessary jargon or technical terminology.
  • Cite all sources used in the report according to a specified citation style.

Write the conclusion:

  • Summarize the main findings and conclusions of the report.
  • Restate the purpose of the report and how it was achieved.
  • Provide recommendations or suggestions for further action, if applicable.

Edit and revise:

  • Review the report for errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
  • Check that all information is accurate and up-to-date.
  • Revise and improve the report as necessary.

Format and present:

  • Use a professional and appropriate format for the report.
  • Include a title page, table of contents, and list of references or citations.
  • Incorporate headings, subheadings, and bullet points to enhance the report’s readability and facilitate navigation.
  • Use appropriate fonts and sizes, and ensure that the report is well-structured and visually appealing.

Important Principles of report writing

To write an effective report, it is important to follow some basic principles. These principles ensure that your report is clear, concise, accurate, and informative. In this regard, here are some of the key principles that you should keep in mind when writing a report:

1/ Clarity: The report should be clear and easy to understand. 

2/ Completeness: The report should cover all the relevant information needed to understand the topic

3/ Conciseness: A report should be concise, presenting only the information that is relevant and necessary to the topic. 

4/ Formatting: The report should be properly formatted, with consistent fonts, spacing, and margins

5/ Relevance: The information presented in the report should be relevant to the purpose of the report.

6/ Timeliness: The report should be completed and delivered in a timely manner.

7/ Presentation: The report should be visually appealing and well-presented.

Extra Learnings Styles of report writing When it comes to the style of report writing, it’s important to use hard facts and figures, evidence, and justification. Using efficient language is crucial since lengthy reports with too many words are difficult to read. The most effective reports are easy and quick to read since the writer has comprehended the data and formulated practical recommendations. To achieve this, it’s important to write as you speak, avoid empty words, use descending order of importance, use an active voice, and keep sentences short. The goal should be to write to express and not to impress the reader.  It’s also important to get facts 100% right and to be unbiased and open. By following these tips, one can create a well-written report that is easy to understand and provides valuable insights.

Differences between a report and other forms of writing

Reports are a specific form of writing that serves a distinct purpose and have unique characteristics. Unlike other forms of writing, such as essays or fiction, reports are typically focused on presenting factual information and making recommendations based on that information. Below we have differentiated report writing with various other forms of writing.

Essay vs report writing

Project writing vs report writing, research methodology vs report writing, article writing vs report writing, content writing vs report writing, business plan vs report writing, latest topics for report writing in 2023.

The possibilities for report topics may depend on the goals and scope of the report. The key is to choose a topic that is relevant and interesting to your audience, and that you can conduct thorough research on in order to provide meaningful insights and recommendations.  

  • A market analysis for a new product or service. 
  • An evaluation of employee satisfaction in a company. 
  • A review of the state of cybersecurity in a particular industry. 
  • A study of the prevalence and consequences of workplace discrimination. 
  • Analysis of the environmental impact of a particular industry or company. 
  • An assessment of the impact of new technology or innovations on a particular industry or sector. 

Report writing skills and techniques 

Effective report writing requires a combination of skills and techniques to communicate information and recommendations in a clear, and engaging manner.

From organizing information to tailoring the report to the intended audience, there are many factors to consider when writing a report. By mastering these skills and techniques, you can ensure that your report is well-written, informative, and engaging for your audience. Some of the primary ones are: 

1/ Organization and structure: Structure your report in a logical and organized manner with headings and subheadings.

2/ Use of data and evidence: Present objective data and evidence to support your findings and recommendations.

3/ Audience awareness: Tailor your report to the needs and interests of your intended audience.

4/ Effective visuals: Use graphs, charts, or other visuals to communicate complex information in a clear and engaging way.

5/ Editing and proofreading: Carefully edit and proofread your report to ensure it is error-free and professional.

6/ Tone: Use a professional and objective tone to communicate your findings and recommendations.

7/ Time management: Manage your time effectively to ensure you have enough time to research, write, and revise your report.

Tips for effective report writing

  • Understand your audience before you start writing. 
  • Start with an outline and cover all the important points. 
  • Employ clear and concise language.
  • Utilize headings and subheadings to organize your report.
  • Incorporate evidence and examples to support your points.
  • Thoroughly edit and proofread your report before submission.
  • Follow formatting guidelines If your report has specific formatting requirements.
  • Use visuals to enhance understanding.

What is the ethical consideration involved in report writing 

Ethical considerations play a crucial role in report writing. The accuracy of the information presented in the report is of utmost importance, as it forms the basis for any conclusions or recommendations that may be made. In addition, it is essential to avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original sources of information and ideas. 

Another crucial ethical consideration is confidentiality, particularly when the report contains sensitive or confidential information. It is important to safeguard this information and prevent its disclosure to unauthorized individuals.

Avoiding bias in report writing is also crucial, as it is essential to present information in an objective and unbiased manner. In cases where research or data collection is involved, obtaining informed consent from human subjects is a necessary ethical requirement.

By taking these ethical considerations into account, report writers can ensure that their work is fair, accurate, and respectful to all parties involved.

Common mistakes in report writing 

There are several common mistakes that students and report writers make in report writing. By avoiding these common mistakes, students as well as report writers can create effective and impactful reports that are clear, accurate, and objective.

1/ Writing in the first person: Often, students and report writers commit an error by writing in the first person and utilizing words such as “I” or “me. In reports, it is recommended to write impersonally, using the passive voice instead.

2/ Using the wrong format: Reports should use numbered headings and subheadings to structure the content, while essays should have a clear line of argument in their content.

3/ Failing to introduce the content: The introduction of the report should introduce the content of the report, not the subject for discussion. It is important to explain the scope of the report and what is to follow, rather than explaining what a certain concept is.

4/ Missing relevant sections: Students and report writers, often miss out on including relevant sections that were specified in the assignment instructions, such as a bibliography or certain types of information. This can result in poor interpretation.

5/ Poor proofreading: Finally, not spending enough time proofreading the reported work can create unwanted mistakes. Therefore, It is important to proofread and correct errors multiple times before submitting the final report to avoid any mistakes that could have been easily corrected.

By avoiding these common mistakes, students and report writers can improve the quality of their reports. 

What are some challenges of report writing and how to overcome them

Report writing can be a challenging task for many reasons. Here are some common challenges of report writing and how to overcome them:

1/ Lack of clarity on the purpose of the report: To overcome this challenge, it is important to clearly define the purpose of the report before starting. This can help to focus the content of the report and ensure that it meets the needs of the intended audience.

2/ Difficulty in organizing ideas: Reports often require a significant amount of information to be organized in a logical and coherent manner. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to create an outline or flowchart to organize ideas before beginning to write.

3/ Time management: Writing a report can be time-consuming, and it is important to allow sufficient time to complete the task. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to create a timeline or schedule for the various stages of the report-writing process.

4/ Writer’s block: Sometimes writers may experience writer’s block, making it difficult to start or continue writing the report. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to take a break, engage in other activities or brainstorming sessions to generate new ideas.

5/ Difficulty in citing sources: It is important to properly cite sources used in the report to avoid plagiarism and maintain credibility. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to use citation management tools, such as EndNote or Mendeley, to keep track of sources and ensure accurate referencing.

6/ Review and editing: Reviewing and editing a report can be a challenging task, especially when it is one’s own work. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to take a break before reviewing the report and seek feedback from others to gain a fresh perspective.

By being aware of these challenges and taking proactive steps to overcome them, report writers can create effective and impactful reports that meet the needs of their intended audience.

Best Software for writing reports 

Report writing software has made it easier for writers to produce professional-looking reports with ease. These software tools offer a range of features and functionalities, including data visualization, collaboration, and customization options. In this section, we will explore some of the best report-writing software available:

1/ Tableau : This tool is great for creating interactive and visually appealing reports, as it allows users to easily create charts, graphs, and other data visualizations. It also supports data blending, which means that you can combine data from multiple sources to create more comprehensive reports.

2/ Zoho reporting : This tool is designed to help users create and share professional-looking reports quickly and easily. It offers a variety of customizable templates, as well as a drag-and-drop interface that makes it easy to add data and create charts and graphs.

3/ Bold Reports by Syncfusion : This tool is designed specifically for creating reports in .NET applications. It offers a wide range of features, including interactive dashboards, real-time data connectivity, and customizable themes and templates.

4/  Fast Reports : This tool is a reporting solution for businesses of all sizes. It allows users to create reports quickly and easily using a drag-and-drop interface and offers a variety of templates and customization options. It also supports a wide range of data sources, including databases, spreadsheets, and web services.

Further Reading : 10+ Best Report Writing Software and Tools in 2023

What is the conclusion of report writing

The conclusion of report writing is the final section of the report that summarizes the main findings, conclusions, and recommendations. It should tie together all the different sections of the report and present a clear and concise summary of the key points. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE has given an inverted introduction framework that can use used for writing effective conclusions for reports. 

inverted-introduction-pyramid-framework

Example of conclusion in report writing:

The implication of the above diagram can be explained with the following example:  

1. RETURN TO TOPIC:

Social media has revolutionized the marketing landscape, providing new opportunities for brands to connect with their target audience.

2. RESTATE THESIS:

However, the complexities and limitations of social media mean that it is unlikely to completely replace traditional marketing methods. The role of the marketing professional remains crucial in ensuring that social media strategies align with the company’s overall goals and effectively reach the desired audience.

3. SUMMARY OF IDEAS DISCUSSED:

Automated tools cannot fully account for the nuances of human communication or provide the level of personalization that consumers crave. Therefore, the most effective marketing strategies will likely blend social media tactics with traditional marketing channels.

4. CONCLUDING STATEMENT [restating thesis]:

In conclusion, while social media presents significant opportunities for brands, the expertise of marketing professionals is still essential to creating successful campaigns that achieve desired outcomes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1) what is report writing and example.

Ans: Report writing involves preparing a structured document that delivers information to a particular audience in a clear and systematic manner. An example of a report could be a business report analyzing the financial performance of a company and making recommendations for improvement.

Q2) What is report writing and types of reports?

Ans: The act of presenting information in an orderly and structured format is known as report writing. Reports come in different types, such as analytical reports, research reports, financial reports, progress reports, incident reports, feasibility reports, and recommendation reports.

Q3) What are the 5 steps of report writing

The five steps of report writing, are as follows:

  • Planning: This involves defining the purpose of the report, determining the audience, and conducting research to gather the necessary information.
  • Structuring: This step involves deciding on the structure of the report, such as the sections and subsections, and creating an outline.
  • Writing: This is the stage where the actual writing of the report takes place, including drafting and revising the content.
  • Reviewing: In this step, the report is reviewed for accuracy, coherence, and effectiveness, and any necessary changes are made.
  • Presenting: This final step involves presenting the report in a clear and professional manner, such as through the use of headings, visuals, and a table of contents.

Q4) What is a report in short answer? 

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  • Introduction and Essential Elements of Report Writing

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Report writing is a formal style of writing elaborately on a topic. The tone of a report is always formal. The audience it is meant for is always thought out section. For example – report writing about a school event, report writing about a business case, etc. Today we shall learn about the essential elements of Report Writing.

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Introduction to report writing.

Report Writing

Before we get into Report writing, how about we first draw a clear distinction between essays and reports. These words are sometimes used interchangeably, but there is definitely a difference of purpose for both. Let’s see some differences between essays and reports:

Essential Elements to Report Writing

From the previous section, you must have gotten a tiny idea of what Reports are like. Let’s break it down further here extending from that point

Furthermore,

  • write-up flows like – introduction, body, conclusion and summary. The layout is pretty crisp with a title page, numbered subheadings, clear bulleted points, recommendations, references, appendices, dates, and timings reported exactly sometimes, and so on. This format stays consistent throughout.
  • All your facts and information presented in the report not only have to bias-free, but they also have to be a 100% correct. Proof-reading and fact-checking is always what you do as a thumb rule before submitting a report.

Browse more Topics under Report Writing

  • Kinds of Reports
  • Steps in Report Writing
  • Tips and Conventions with Sample Reports

Parts of a Business Report

So, broadly here’s what we have as sub-headings in a report for a business student in the given order: Executive summary, table of contents, introduction, body, conclusion , references, Appendices.

This gives you a broad idea of what flow of thought you are to keep while writing a report.

Example of a Report for Business Students

XYZ Case study Short Business Report: Guidelines

This document provides an outline for our annual business. Please follow this format when preparing your case reports.

The report should begin with a table of contents. This explains the audience, author , and basic purpose of the attached report. It should be short and to the point.

DATE: March 24, 2018 TO: Mr. Siddhartha Malik FROM: Jeena Claudette, Marketing team, XYZ company

Executive Summary

The second page of the document must have a report title at the top, and provide an executive summary, that is a paragraph or two that summarizes the report. It should provide a sufficient overview of the report so that an executive (who doesn’t have the time or energy to fully read through the long report) can actually grasp the main points beforehand.

in report writing

Most importantly, the summary should contain (a) the purpose of the report, (b) what you did (analysis) and what you found (results), and (c) your recommendations. These recommendations should be short and not go beyond a page.

Next page in the report must contain a title at the top (the same title that you put on the top of the previous page. This is the first page that should actually be numbered, and it should be page 2 (as the table of contents is not technically part of the report).

  • This part introduces the reader to your report, sets the purpose in place and broadly plates out the content of your entire document.
  • Throughout your report, keep breaking points and starting off a new logical thought with a numbered sub-heading
  • A conclusive paragraph ties up all the information written before and leaves room for inferences if any
  • The length of the body of the report will be determined by necessity to convey the analysis and conclusions, but should generally not exceed 10 pages.
  • Tables and figures must all be labeled.
  • References could be cited in footnotes, or in a separate “References” section, if they are many or if you prefer that format.

Remember there’s a format that’s structure-wise similar but some of your sections are actually your preferences. For being on the safe side, it’s always better to be extra careful in your initial report writing days and eventually, your style will evolve from there. Stay tuned, we got a lot more fun report-writing to do.

Solved Examples for You

Question: Read the information and fill in the report blanks.

Global Warming: – A threat – Caused ecological threat to many countries – We must check it – Otherwise, it will be too late.

Global warming ________ [1] the world. It ________ [2] disturbances. There is a ________ [3] countries and islands. If we want to save our planet, we ________ [4]. We have to use methods to create ecological balance otherwise it ________ [5].

Global warming is a threat to the world. It causes ecological disturbances. There is a serious threat to many countries and islands. If we want to save our planet, we should keep a check on it. We have to use methods to create ecological balance otherwise it will be too late.

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Report Writing

  • Steps in Report Writing: Report Writing Format

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How to Write an Effective Self-Assessment

  • Marlo Lyons

in report writing

Don’t assume that your manager is aware of all you’ve accomplished. Here’s how to artfully highlight what you’ve done this year.

Writing a self-assessment can feel like an afterthought, but it’s a critical part of your overall performance review. Managers with many direct reports likely won’t have visibility into or remember all of your notable accomplishments from the year, and they don’t have time to read a long recap. The author offers five steps for drafting a self-assessment that covers your most impactful accomplishments and demonstrates self-awareness through a lens of improvement and development: 1) Focus on the entire year; 2) consider company and functional goals; 3) look for alignment with those goals; 4) seek feedback from colleagues; and 5) draft a concise list of accomplishments.

It’s performance review season for many companies, which means it’s time to reflect on the year and draft a self-assessment of your accomplishments. Writing an impactful self-assessment will set the tone for your manager’s evaluation of your work, which can affect your compensation (e.g., merit increase, bonus, etc.).

  • Marlo Lyons career, executive, and team coach and the award-winning author of Wanted – A New Career: The Definitive Playbook for Transitioning to a New Career or Finding Your Dream Job . You can reach her at www.marlolyonscoaching.com.

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AF&PA Releases November 2023 Printing-Writing Monthly Report

WASHINGTON – The American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) released the November 2023 Printing-Writing Monthly report.

According to the report, total printing-writing paper shipments decreased 16% in November compared to November 2022. U.S. purchases of total printing-writing papers decreased 24% in November compared to the same month last year. Total printing-writing paper inventory levels remained essentially flat (+0.4%) when compared to October 2023.

Individually, shipments in all three major P-W grades (UFS, CFS and MECH) in November decreased as well. Uncoated Free Sheet shipments decreased 10% when compared to November 2022, Coated Free Sheet shipments decreased 21% compared to the same period last year, and Mechanical papers shipments decreased 39% compared to the same period last year.

A subscription to the complete report with detailed tables, charts and historical data can be purchased by contacting Kory Bockman at [email protected] or 202-463-4716.

The American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) serves to advance U.S. paper and wood products manufacturers through fact-based public policy and marketplace advocacy. The forest products industry is circular by nature. AF&PA member companies make essential products from renewable and recyclable resources, generate renewable bioenergy and are committed to continuous improvement through the industry’s sustainability initiative — Better Practices, Better Planet 2030: Sustainable Products for a Sustainable Future . The forest products industry accounts for approximately 5% of the total U.S. manufacturing GDP, manufactures about $350 billion in products annually and employs about 925,000 people. The industry meets a payroll of about $65 billion annually and is among the top 10 manufacturing sector employers in 43 states. Visit AF&PA online at afandpa.org  or follow us on Twitter @ForestandPaper . 

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Af&pa releases november 2023 packaging papers monthly report.

Total packaging papers & specialty packaging shipments in November increased 1% compared to November 2022. They were down 1% when compared to the same 11 months of 2022.

AF&PA Releases October 2023 Packaging Papers Monthly Report

Af&pa releases october 2023 printing-writing monthly report.

Total printing-writing paper shipments decreased 15% in October compared to October 2022. U.S. purchases of total printing-writing papers decreased 30% in September compared to the same month last year. Total printing-writing paper inventory levels decreased 2% when compared to September 2023.

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Mother of a child punished by a court for urinating in public refuses to sign probation terms

This image provided by The Tate Record shows a Senatobia Police vehicle in front of the Senatobia, Miss., Police Department on Jan. 27, 2021. The mother of a 10-year-old child who was sentenced by a Mississippi judge to three months’ probation and a book report for urinating in public, has refused to sign his probation agreement and will ask for the charge against her son to be dismissed, the family's attorney announced Tuesday, Dec. 19, 2023. (The Tate Record via AP)

This image provided by The Tate Record shows a Senatobia Police vehicle in front of the Senatobia, Miss., Police Department on Jan. 27, 2021. The mother of a 10-year-old child who was sentenced by a Mississippi judge to three months’ probation and a book report for urinating in public, has refused to sign his probation agreement and will ask for the charge against her son to be dismissed, the family’s attorney announced Tuesday, Dec. 19, 2023. (The Tate Record via AP)

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JACKSON, Miss. (AP) — The mother of a 10-year-old child who was sentenced by a Mississippi judge to three months of probation and a book report for urinating in public has refused to sign his probation agreement and has asked for the charge against her son to be dismissed, the family’s attorney announced Tuesday.

The child’s mother had initially planned on signing the agreement to avoid the risk of prosecutors upgrading her son’s charge, as they threatened, but she changed her mind after reading the full agreement Tuesday, attorney Carlos Moore said.

“We cannot in good conscience accept a probation agreement that treats a 10-year-old child as a criminal,” Moore said. “The terms proposed are not in the best interest of our client, and we will take all necessary steps to challenge them.”

The terms for the 10-year-old’s probation were similar to those prosecutors would demand of an adult, including sections that prohibited the use of weapons and demanded he submit to drug tests at a probation officer’s discretion, Moore said.

FILE - Former President Donald Trump listens as he speaks with reporters while in flight on his plane after a campaign rally at Waco Regional Airport, in Waco, Texas, March 25, 2023, while en route to West Palm Beach, Fla. The Supreme Court said Friday, Dec. 22, that it will not immediately take up a plea by special counsel Jack Smith to rule on whether former President Donald Trump can be prosecuted for his actions to overturn the 2020 election results. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci, File)

“It’s just a regular probation. I thought it was something informed for a juvenile. But it’s the same terms an adult criminal would have,” Moore said.

The agreement also imposed an 8 p.m. curfew for the child, which would have taken effect during the Christmas holiday.

The terms of the agreement stem from a sentence ordered on Dec. 12 by Tate County Youth Court Judge Rusty Harlow. The judge said the child, who is Black, must serve three months of probation and write a two-page book report on the late NBA star Kobe Bryant.

The child’s mother has said her son urinated behind her vehicle while she was visiting a lawyer’s office in Senatobia, Mississippi, on Aug. 10. Police officers in the town of about 8,100 residents, 40 miles (64 kilometers) south of Memphis, Tennessee, saw the child urinating and arrested him. Officers put him in a squad car and took him to the police station.

Senatobia Police Chief Richard Chandler said the child was not handcuffed, but his mother has said he was put in a jail cell.

Days after the episode, Chandler said the officers violated their training on how to deal with children. He said one of the officers who took part in the arrest was “ no longer employed ,” and other officers would be disciplined. He didn’t specify whether the former officer was fired or quit, or what type of discipline the others would face.

The prosecution threatened to upgrade the charge of “child in need of supervision” to a more serious charge of disorderly conduct if the boy’s family took the case to trial, Moore said.

A voicemail message left for Paige Williams, the Tate County Youth Court prosecutor appointed to handle the case, was not immediately returned. A staffer for Williams has said the attorney could not comment on cases involving juveniles.

After advising the boy’s mother not to sign the probation agreement, Moore filed a motion requesting the Tate County Youth Court either dismiss the case or set a trial. A hearing on that motion has been scheduled for Jan. 16.

Michael Goldberg is a corps member for the Associated Press/Report for America Statehouse News Initiative. Report for America is a nonprofit national service program that places journalists in local newsrooms to report on undercovered issues. Follow him at @mikergoldberg .

MICHAEL GOLDBERG

Israel Gaza: Hostages shot by IDF put out 'SOS' sign written with leftover food

  • Published 7 days ago
  • Israel-Gaza war

Hostages' sign pleading for help

Three Israeli hostages mistakenly killed by soldiers in Gaza on Friday had used leftover food to write signs pleading for help, Israel says.

The men had been staying at the building next to where they were shot "for some period of time", according to the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).

The head of the IDF told troops that they are "absolutely not" permitted to shoot those surrendering.

"The IDF doesn't shoot a person who raises their hands," said Herzi Halevi.

He said Gazans with a white flag must be arrested and not shot "if they lay down their arms and raise their hands".

About 120 hostages are believed to be still in captivity in the Gaza Strip, held by Hamas and allied Palestinian groups.

Israel is under increasing pressure for a deal to free more hostages.

Israeli officials have admitted that killing the three men who were holding a white flag was a breach of "rules of engagement".

They were seized and taken to Gaza during the 7 October Hamas attacks that killed around 1,200 in southern Israel.

Israel has launched a massive retaliatory operation it says is aimed at destroying Hamas.

More than 18,000 people have been killed in Gaza since, according to the local health authorities, with hundreds of thousands of others pushed out of their homes.

The perils of hostage rescue

  • Stories of the hostages taken by Hamas from Israel

The Israeli hostages - Yotam Haim, 28, Samer Talalka, 22, and Alon Shamriz, 26 - were killed in the Shejaiya neighbourhood of Gaza City on Friday as Israeli troops face stiff resistance.

According to an Israeli military official, who spoke on condition of anonymity, the men emerged shirtless from a building, with one carrying a stick with a white cloth.

One of the soldiers, the official added, felt threatened, as the men were at a distance of tens of metres, declared them "terrorists" and opened fire. Two were immediately killed while the third, wounded, returned to the building.

(L-R) Alon Lulu Shamriz, Yotam Haim and Samer Talalka.

A cry for help was heard in Hebrew and the battalion commander ordered the troops to cease fire. The wounded hostage later re-emerged, and was shot and killed, the official said.

It is not clear if the hostages had been abandoned by their captors or escaped.

On Sunday, the IDF said a search of the building was carried out, revealing the messages "SOS" and "Help, 3 hostages" written on fabric.

Officials believe the hostages had been there for some time.

Since the end of a temporary ceasefire between Israel and Hamas earlier this month, families of the hostages have urged the Israeli government to reach a new truce for at least some of the captives to be freed. The initial deal led to the release of more than 100 hostages, in exchange for Palestinians held in Israeli jails.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has deflected the calls, insisting "military pressure is necessary both for the return of the hostages and for victory".

Amid mounting Palestinian civilian casualties, Israeli authorities have come under growing international pressure, including from the country's main ally, the US.

On Sunday, France's Foreign Minister Catherine Colonna went to Israel calling for an "immediate and durable truce".

Her Israeli counterpart Eli Cohen said a ceasefire would be an error, describing it as a gift to Hamas.

The UK and Germany have also called for a "sustainable ceasefire", whilst stopping short of saying it should be immediate.

  • France calls for 'immediate and durable' ceasefire in Gaza
  • The price of peace between Israelis and Palestinians
  • How Israel jails hundreds of Palestinians without charge

Vast areas of the Gaza Strip have been destroyed by the Israeli bombardment, and the United Nations has warned of a humanitarian catastrophe amid widespread shortages of basic supplies.

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Crowds grab aid from moving trucks in Gaza

Images on social media on Sunday showed Gaza residents climbing on aid lorries.

With no let-up in the fighting, the IDF published images of what it said was Hamas's largest attack tunnel so far.

The tunnel - in some places wide enough for cars to pass through - was some 400m from the Erez border crossing with Israel, the IDF said.

Israeli soldiers operate near the opening to what Israel's military says is an iron-girded tunnel close to Erez crossing in the northern Gaza Strip, December 15, 2023.

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More on this story

  • Published 17 December

Two Israeli tanks seen moving along a duty road with soldiers perched on top of them.

Crowds scramble to grab aid from moving lorries in Gaza. Video, 00:00:33 Crowds scramble to grab aid from moving lorries in Gaza

Men on the back of an aid lorry throw boxes down onto crowds below

Video of Gaza detainees allegedly 'surrendering guns' - what we know

  • Published 10 December

The images show a man - stripped down to his underpants - obeying instructions to lay down a weapon

Gaza ceasefire chances shrinking, Qatar says

A Palestinian boy reacts, as he attends the funeral of Palestinians killed in an Israeli raid, amid the ongoing conflict between Israel and the Palestinian Islamist group Hamas at Nasser hospital in Khan Younis, in the southern Gaza Strip,

Hamas raped and mutilated women on 7 October, BBC hears

  • Published 5 December

Captain Maayan

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  3. ️ Proper report writing. How to Write a Proper Report. 2019-02-28

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  2. Report writing ( Newspaper Report and Magazine Report) @DelightfulLiterature2023

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  4. Writing a Report: Part 2 (Survey Report)

  5. REPORT WRITING II How to write a Report in English II

  6. WRITING REPORT

COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Report: A Guide

    Matt Ellis Updated on May 10, 2023 Students A report is a nonfiction account that presents and/or summarizes the facts about a particular event, topic, or issue. The idea is that people who are unfamiliar with the subject can find everything they need to know from a good report.

  2. How To Write a Report in 7 Steps (Plus Tips)

    A report is a written document that presents the results of an investigation, project or initiative. It can also be an in-depth analysis of a particular issue or data set. The purpose of a report is to inform, educate and present options and recommendations for future action.

  3. Report Writing Format with Templates and Sample Report

    A report writing format includes a title, table of contents, summary, introduction, body, conclusion, recommendations and appendices. Top report writing tips include writing a report outline, creating the body of the report before the introduction or conclusion, sticking to facts, and keeping your appendix at a reasonable size.

  4. How to Write a Report (with Pictures)

    Part 1 Selecting Your Topic Download Article 1 Read the report prompt or guidelines carefully. If your teacher, professor, or boss gave you guidelines for your report, make sure you read them thoroughly to make sure you understand the assignment.

  5. How to write a report (with tips and examples)

    1. Understand Your Purpose: Always start with a clear understanding of your report's objective. This clarity guides your research, the writing process, and the way you present your findings. 2. Emphasize Clarity and Precision: Your report should be written in clear, simple language. Prioritize precision and avoid unnecessary jargon.

  6. How to Write a Report: Tips, Outline and Sample

    Title: You need a comprehensive but concise title to set the right tone and make a good impression. It should be reflective of the general themes in the report. Table of Contents: Your title page must be followed by a table of contents. We suggest writing an entire report first and creating a table of content later.

  7. Report Writing

    Essentially, a report is a short, sharp, concise document which is written for a particular purpose and audience. It generally sets outs and analyses a situation or problem, often making recommendations for future action. It is a factual paper, and needs to be clear and well-structured. A description of a sequence of events or a situation;

  8. How to Write a Report (2023 Guide & Free Templates)

    It should also state the aims and objectives of your report and give an overview of the methodology used to gather and analyze the data. Make sure you include a powerful topic sentence. Main body. The main body of the report should be divided into subsections, each dealing with a specific aspect of the topic.

  9. Report Writing Skills: Definition and Examples

    Updated March 10, 2023

  10. How to Write a Report Properly and Effectively

    Report writing is different from many other types of writing, which is why it's a good idea to do your due diligence before you get started. What do you need to include in your report? How should you flesh out each section? There are different report formats based on your specific needs, but the structure tends to remain similar for each.

  11. What is Report Writing? Introduction, Types & Format

    Report Writing is the process of presenting information in a structured and organised way. It serves as a means of communicating facts, findings, or recommendations to a specific audience, typically in a written format.

  12. How To Write a Report for Work (With Examples)

    Work report example. The following is an example of a work report you can use as a guide when writing your own report in the workplace: November 5, 2023 Prepared by: Sally Smith ABC Company. This report is to provide an update on the handbook project that is due on December 5.

  13. Key Features of Report Writing: Explained in detailed

    What is Report Writing? Report Writing is a systematic and structured process of gathering, analysing, and presenting information in a formal document. It is a vital communication tool used across various fields, including academia, business, government, and research.

  14. Report Writing: Format, Tips, Topics & Examples I Leverage Edu

    A report is a short document written for a particular purpose or audience. It usually sets out and analyses a problem often recommended for future purposes. Requirements for the precise form of the report depend on the department and organization.

  15. Writing a report

    Organisation. Identify and group the key information, facts and details your report needs to include before you start writing - the structure of a report is usually in three parts. For example: An overview - briefly introduce the topic of the report and the key areas you will consider. Your reader should be able to understand what you will ...

  16. Steps in Report Writing: Report Writing Format Explained

    The purpose of report writing is essential to inform the reader about a topic, minus one's opinion on the topic. It's simply a portrayal of facts, as it is. Even if one gives inferences, solid analysis, charts, tables and data is provided.

  17. Introduction to Report Writing

    Writing reports is a key skill used to drive effective communication in the professional world. Reports serve as a powerful tool that transforms raw data and information into meaningful insights and actionable recommendations. This business English equips you with the communication skills needed to excel in the field of report writing.

  18. What is Report Writing? Parts, Types, Structure, Process

    Report writing is a formal style of presenting objective facts and information. There can be various types of reports, such as academic reports, science reports, business reports, technical reports, and news reports. A report can be verbal or written. However, a written report is more formal than a verbal report. What is Report Writing

  19. What Is Report Writing?

    According to the commonly known definition of report writing, a report is a formal document that elaborates on a topic using facts, charts, and graphs to support its arguments and findings.

  20. What is Report Writing: Format, Examples, Types & Process

    A report is a formal document that is structured and presented in an organized manner, with the aim of conveying information, analyzing data, and providing recommendations. It is often used to communicate findings and outcomes to a specific audience, such as stakeholders, or managers.

  21. Introduction and Essential Elements of Report Writing

    Report writing is a formal style of writing elaborately on a topic. The tone of a report is always formal. The audience it is meant for is always thought out section. For example - report writing about a school event, report writing about a business case, etc. Today we shall learn about the essential elements of Report Writing. Table of content

  22. How To Write A Report: A Simple Step-By-Step Process

    Take this report as an example of how you dive into the body of the report. Explain every metric, data, and even possible reasons leading to the results. 4. Recommend An Action Plan. This is the concluding section of your report where you get to summarize your findings and discuss what they mean for your company.

  23. How to Write an Effective Self-Assessment

    Summary. Writing a self-assessment can feel like an afterthought, but it's a critical part of your overall performance review. Managers with many direct reports likely won't have visibility ...

  24. AF&PA Releases November 2023 Printing-Writing Monthly Report

    According to the report, total printing-writing paper shipments decreased 16% in November compared to November 2022. U.S. purchases of total printing-writing papers decreased 24% in November compared to the same month last year. Total printing-writing paper inventory levels remained essentially flat (+0.4%) when compared to October 2023.

  25. Biden administration takes first step toward writing key AI standards

    REUTERS/Dado Ruvic/Illustration/File Photo Acquire Licensing Rights. WASHINGTON, Dec 19 (Reuters) - The Biden administration said on Tuesday it was taking the first step toward writing key ...

  26. Mother of a child punished by a court for urinating in public refuses

    The agreement also imposed an 8 p.m. curfew for the child, which would have taken effect during the Christmas holiday. The terms of the agreement stem from a sentence ordered on Dec. 12 by Tate County Youth Court Judge Rusty Harlow. The judge said the child, who is Black, must serve three months of probation and write a two-page book report on the late NBA star Kobe Bryant.

  27. Israel Gaza: Hostages shot by IDF put out 'SOS' sign written with ...

    Israel Defense Forces. Three Israeli hostages mistakenly killed by soldiers in Gaza on Friday had used leftover food to write signs pleading for help, Israel says. The men had been staying at the ...