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Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide

Chicago-style source citations come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. If you are unsure about which system to use, read on.

Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date?

The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit neatly into the author-date system.

The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Aside from the use of numbered notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style. Follow the links at the top of this page to see examples of some of the more common source types cited in both systems.

Most authors choose the system used by others in their field or required by their publisher. Students who are unsure of which system to use will find more information here .

For a more comprehensive look at Chicago’s two systems of source citation and many more examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

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  • Introduction

Reference examples

Missing information, footnote examples, tools and resources, how to cite in chicago style.

Turabian manual cover

Chicago style (sometimes called Turabian style ) is one of the most popular citation styles used by students and academics. The main resource for students using Chicago style is A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th edition) .

Chicago presents two options for source citation: notes and bibliography style , widely used in humanities subjects; and author-date style , mainly used in the sciences. Scribbr’s free citation generator can automatically create citations in both of these styles for a wide variety of sources.

Below, the rules of notes and bibliography style are explained in more detail.

Chicago bibliography entries

The bibliography appears at the end of your paper, listing full information on all the sources you cited. A Chicago bibliography entry typically mentions the author , title , publisher or publication in which the source is contained, publication date , and URL or DOI if available.

Depending on the source type, you may omit some of this information when it’s unavailable or irrelevant, and include other details when they’re needed to identify the source.

The exact format of a bibliography entry depends on the source type you’re citing. The rules indicate what details to include for each source and how to format the information (e.g., italics, capitalization). Explore the tabs below to see examples for the main source types.

Sometimes, not all of the suggested information will be available for the source you want to cite. The table below shows what to do when certain commonly included details are not available for your source.

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Chicago footnotes

Chicago footnotes are used to cite sources in the text. Each footnote is indicated at the relevant point in the text by a superscript number,1 while the note itself appears at the bottom of the page. A footnote should be added each time you quote or paraphrase a source.

All of the sources you cite in footnotes should be included in your bibliography.

Chicago provides guidance for full notes (giving complete information) and short notes (giving only the author’s last name, shortened title, and page number). Use a full note the first time you cite a source and short notes for any subsequent citations of that source.

Full notes generally give the same information as bibliography entries, but presented slightly differently. You can see examples of full and short notes for the most common source types in the tabs below.

As with bibliography entries, Chicago provides advice on what to do when information you would usually include in your footnotes is missing—summarized in the table below.

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The ultimate guide to citing anything in chicago style, everything you ever needed to know about citing sources from the chicago manual of style, the basics of citing in chicago style.

The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1) Notes and Bibliography and 2) Author-Date.

This guide displays the Notes and Bibliography style of referencing and is not associated with the official publishers of the style.

Need help with other styles? Our thorough MLA format and APA format guides are available for all of your writing and citing needs!

Creating a Bibliography in Chicago Style

The bibliography is a list of all the sources used in the paper. The list includes the important publication details of the sources. The bibliography must also follow this format:

  • The citation list or bibliography must be single spaced.
  • The last names of the authors must be arranged alphabetically.
  • The second line of the source must be indented.

Examples of Citing Different Sources in Chicago Style

Generally, Chicago citations require:

  • Title of book/article
  • Title of newspaper/journal
  • Publication year
  • Publication month and date
  • City of publication
  • Date of access
  • Page numbers
  • URL or Name of Database

How to Create Footnotes and Endnotes for Chicago Style

If you’re wondering how to format Chicago in-text citations, Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes. These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work.

When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript (it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised). That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.

  • Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page
  • Endnotes are added at the end of the chapter or project
  • A footnote or endnote contains the complete citation information
  • The matching number in the footnote or endnote is normal sized and not raised
  • It is up to the discretion of the writer to either place the citation at the bottom of the page where the superscript is placed (a footnote) or to place all citations together at the end of the work (endnotes)
One would wonder, "Would young Einstein be characterized as belonging somewhere on the autism spectrum? Would Erdos have been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D.?" ¹

Chicago style footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page:

  • Silver, Nate. "Beautiful Minds." The New York Times. July 13, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/books/review/the-boy-who-loved-math-and-on-a-beam-of-light.html?ref=books&_r=0 .

If a source is used more than once in a research project, follow these guidelines:

  • When used again, instead of writing out the complete citation for a second time in the footnote, only include: the author’s last name, the title or a phrase for the title (if it’s more than four words), and the page number(s) that were used. This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper.
  • Cohen, Micah, "Rubio is Losing Support Among Republican Voters." FiveThirtyEight. July 09, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/rubio-is-losing-support-among-republican-voters/
  • Wolf, Leon H. "Marco Rubio's Campaign Must Adapt or Die." RedState. August 04, 2015. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.redstate.com/2015/08/04/marco-rubios-campaign-must-adapt-die/ .
  • Cohen, "Rubio Losing Support"

If a source is used consecutively, follow these guidelines for shortened citation and ibid :

If you are citing the same source continually throughout your text, use a shortened version of the full citation in your footnotes.

Previous versions of the style used the abbreviation “ibid,” short for “ibidem.” Ibidem is a Latin word that means “in the same place.” It was used when referring to a source that was just cited within a document (without other sources in between). Writers would use ibid instead of writing out the source information again. This was meant to save space since it’s fewer characters than citing the source again.

In the current version of Chicago, the 17th version, ibid is accepted but not preferred. This is because ibid requires readers to go back and search for the previous source cited, an inconvenience which outweighs the benefits of shortening the citation. Also, shortened citations are compact, so using ibid doesn’t always save line space.

Shortened citations

The first mention of a source should include all relevant information (e.g., full author name(s), full title, publisher, date published, etc.).

Subsequent mentions should be a shortened version using this formula:

Last Name, Title of the Work , page number(s).

Mentions after the shortened form can use the abbreviated formula:

Last Name, page number(s).

If there are two or three authors, list their full names in the order they appear in the source. If there are more than three authors, list the first author’s name followed by “et al.”

Examples of using shortened citations (preferred format in the 17th Edition):

  • Philip R. Cateora et al., International Marketing (New York: McGraw Hill, 2020), 292-294.
  • Cateora et al., International Marketing , 28-29.
  • Cateora et al., 28-29.
  • Cateora et al., 377.

Long titles that are more than four words are usually shortened. Focus on keeping key words from the title and omitting any beginning “a” or “the.” Examples:

  • And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street = Mulberry Street
  • Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe = Fried Green Tomatoes

If you are using the discontinued ibid notation, here are a few guidelines:

  • When the same source is used consecutively, instead of typing in the citation information again, use the abbreviation “ibid.” Add the page numbers immediately following.
  • If the same source AND same page number are used consecutively, simply write “Ibid.”

Same example above, but using ibid:

  • Philip R. Cateora et al, International Marketing (New York: McGraw Hill, 2020), 292-294.

Another example with two sources that were mentioned earlier in the text:

  • Anthony Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See (New York: Scribner, 2014), 82-84.
  • Tatiana de Rosnay, Sarah's Key (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2007), 24-27.
  • Ibid., 133-134.
  • Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See , 397-401.
  • Ibid., 405.
  • Ibid., 411.

For further clarification on the Chicago in-text citation style of footnotes and endnotes, consult the Chicago Manual of Style's website . This site is full of helpful pages, so if you’re tempted to head to Google to type in, “in-text citations Chicago,” take a peek at the official site first.

Creating Your Citations in Chicago Style

As mentioned, when you're following The Chicago Manual of Style, you'll be required to create a list of all sources used in your paper. Even though full bibliographic information can be found in the footnotes and endnotes, it is still acceptable, and often required by instructors, to create a bibliography. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment.

How to Cite a Print Book in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes:

First name Last name, Title of Book (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.

In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of book . Publication Place: Publisher, Year.

Example of Chicago Style for Books with One Author

Sam Staggs, Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009), 84.

Staggs, Sam. Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.

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Example of Chicago Citation for Books with Multiple Authors

Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media (London: Routledge,1994) 24-28.

Shohat, Ella, and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media . London: Routledge, 1994.

How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book in Chicago Style

First name, Last name of Chapter Author, “Chapter or Article Title,” in Book Title , ed. First Name Last Name of Editor (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.

Last name, First name. "Chapter Title." In Book Title , edited by First Name Last Name, page range. Publication Place: Publisher, Year.

Looking for a simple and easy-to-use Chicago citation maker? Head to our homepage and start building your Chicago format references with ease!

Example of Chicago Citation for Chapters in a Book

Laura Aymerich-Franch and Maddalena Fedele, "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education," in Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, ed. Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan (Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014), 35-36.

Aymerich-Franch, Laura, and Maddalena Fedele. "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education." In Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, edited by Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan, 35-36. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014.

How to Cite Online E-books in Chicago Style

When citing e-books, include the URL or the name of the database. The URL or database name should be the last part of the citation.

First name Last name, Title of e-book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page range, URL, Database Name.

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. URL, Name of Database.

Example of Chicago Citation for E-Books

Michael J. Baker, The Marketing Book (Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002), 89, https://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf .

Baker, Michael J. The Marketing Book. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. https://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf .

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How to Cite E-books in Chicago Style E-books from a Kindle or E-book Reader

If there aren’t any clearly labeled page numbers, use chapter numbers or titles, section numbers or titles, or any other established numbering system in the text. It’s also acceptable to omit page information from Chicago style citations if there aren’t clearly labeled page numbers.

First name Last name, Title of the Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page range, Type of E-reader

Last name, First name. Title of book . Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Type of e-reader.

Example of Chicago Citation for Kindle or E-book Reader

Corina Bomann, The Moonlight Garden (Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016), chap. 8, Kindle.

Bomann, Corina. The Moonlight Garden . Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016. Kindle.

How to Cite Print Journals in Chicago Style

First name Last name, "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.

Chicago style citation in the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Journals

Damien O'Brien and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World," Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.

O'Brien, Damien, and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World." Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.

If you’re come this far and you’re still searching for in-text citation Chicago information, remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes! Scroll up to find out more!

How to Cite Online or Database Journals in Chicago Style

First name Last name, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No.(Year): Page range. URL or Name of Database.

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No. (Year): Page range. URL or Name of Database.

Example of Chicago Citation for Online or Database Journals

Trine Schreiber, "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory," Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 (2014): 346-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002 .

Schreiber, Trine. "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory." Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 (2014): 346-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002 .

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How to Cite Print Magazines in Chicago Style

First name Last name, "Article Title," Magazine Title, Full Date, page range.

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Full Date.

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Magazines

George J. Church, "Sunny Mood at Midsummer: Americans Take a Brighter View of Reagan," _Time, July 18, 1983, 56-59.

Church, George J. "Sunny Mood at Midsummer: Americans Take a Brighter View of Reagan" Time, July 18, 1983.

How to Cite Online Magazines in Chicago Style

First name, Last name, "Article Title," Title of Magazine, Full Date, URL.

Chicago style bibliography structure:

Last name, First name. "Article Title" Magazine Title, Full Date, URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Online Magazines

Bill Donahue. “King of the Mountains,” Backpacker, September/October 2019, 76-82, http://backpacker.eoncontent.ebscohost.com/2226647#&pageSet=39

Donahue, Bill. “King of the Mountains.” Backpacker, September/October 2019. http://backpacker.eoncontent.ebscohost.com/2226647#&pageSet=39

How to Cite a Web Page in Chicago Style

Creating a footnote, endnote, or bibliographic information for web content isn’t always necessary. It’s acceptable to simply mention the source in the written portion of the paper. For example, “The Marco Polo page on History’s website, last updated on March 6, 2019, describes his travels along the Silk Road while....” Include formal Chicago citation style references if you or your professor prefers to do so.

A bit more:

  • If the website page is missing a date of publication, include the date the source was last modified or accessed in the footnote and endnote.
  • If the website page is missing the name of the author, begin the footnote with the “Title of the Article or Page.”
First name Last name of Author, "Title of Article or Page," Title of Website, Date published or last modified or accessed, URL.

Last name, First name or Organization Name. "Title of Article or Page." Title of Website. Date published or last modified or accessed. URL.

Figuring out how to style web references can be tricky, but thanks to our Chicago citation machine, we’ve made the whole process much easier for you. Try it out!

Example of Chicago Citation for a Web Page

Sujan Patel, "15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015," Entrepreneur, January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570 .

Patel, Sujan. “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015.” Entrepreneur. January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570 .

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How to Cite The Bible or Religious Texts in Chicago Style

Bible references are often displayed in the text of a paper (similar to web content) or in footnotes and endnotes. Formal bible references in bibliographies are not necessary.

Abbreviated Title of Book, Chapter:Verse (Edition).

Example of Chicago Citation for Bible

2 Cor. 11:7 (New Standard Version).

If you’re looking for other resources to help you with the written portion of your paper, we have quite a few handy grammar guides. Two of our favorites? Adjectives starting with X and List of verbs .

How to Cite Blogs in Chicago Style

*According to the 17th edition of the manual, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are generally cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. Of course, if the writer or professor prefers a full bibliographic reference, one can be created.

Style notes and bibliographic references the same way as you would an online newspaper, but include (blog) in parentheses immediately following the title of the blog.

First name Last name, "Title of Blog Post," Title of Blog (blog), Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post, URL.

Last Name, First Name. "Title of the Blog." Name of Blog Site (blog). Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Blogs

Shannon Miller, "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet," The Library Voice (blog), January 20, 2016, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html .

Miller, Shannon. "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet." The Library Voice, January 20, 2016. http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html .

Chicago style bibliographies aren’t as complicated as they seem, especially when you have a generator to do the work for you. Head to our homepage and try ours out!

How to Cite TV Broadcasts in Chicago Style

Title of Series , episode number, “Title of Episode,” directed by First Name Last Name, written by First Name Last Name, featuring First Names Last Names of actors, aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name, URL.

Last Name, First Name, dir. Title of Series . Season Number, episode number, “Title of Episode.” Aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Broadcasts

Riverdale , episode 15, “American Dreams,” directed by Gabriel Correra, written by Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, featuring KJ Apa, Lili Reinhart, and Cole Sprouse, aired March 13, 2019, on CW.

Bibliography Chicago style:

Correra, Gabriel, dir. Riverdale . Season 3, episode 15, “American Dreams.” Aired March 13, 2019, on CW.

How to Cite a Case Study in Chicago Style

First name Last name. Title of Case Study. (Publication Place: Publisher, Year).

Last name, First name. Title of Case Study.

Example of Chicago Citation for Case Study

Peter Finn. Disulfiram.

Finn, Peter. Disulfiram.

How to Cite Conference Proceedings in Chicago Style

First Name Last Name, “Title of Conference Paper” (format, Title of Conference, Location, Full Date).

Last name, First name. “Title of Conference Paper.” Format presented at Title of Conference, Location, Date. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Conference Paper

Craig Myerson, “Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware” (Power-Point presentation, The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.

Myerson, Craig. “Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware.” Power-point presentation presented at The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.

How to Cite Court or Legal Cases in Chicago Style

The 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style recommends referring to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation , or the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation to learn how to create court or legal references. Both guides are widely used by those in legal fields and have become the standard for referencing legal cases.

The examples below reflect the format found in The Bluebook .

Legal cases are rarely documented in bibliographies, usually only in notes.

Plaintiff v. Defendant, Court Case Number (Abbreviated Name of the Court. Year).

Example of Chicago Citation for Legal Cases

Michael Clum v. Jackson National Life Insurance Co., 10-000126-CL (Ingham Cty. 2011).

How to Cite Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries in Chicago Style

According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, well-known reference books, including major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography.

The abbreviation "s.v." means sub verbo , which is Latin for "under the word."

Chicago style formatting in the footnotes and endnotes:

Name of dictionary or encyclopedia , Numbered ed. (Year), s.v. “term.”

If found online:

Name of dictionary or encyclopedia , s.v. "term," accessed Month Day Year, url.

Last name, First name of Author. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia . Numbered ed. Location of Publisher: Publisher, Year.

Example of Chicago Citation for Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries

Encyclopedia Britannica , s.v. “pressure,” accessed September 15, 2019, https://www.britannica.com/science/pressure .

Gover, Emily. Encyclopedia of Birds . 4th ed. New York: Chegg, 2016.

How to Cite Dissertations in Chicago Style

First name Last name, "Title of Dissertation" (type of paper, school, year), url.

Last name, First name. "Title of Dissertation." Type of Paper, School, Year. URL or Database(Identification Number).

Example of Chicago Citation for Dissertations

Michele Kirschenbaum, "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities" (master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009).

Kirschenbaum, Michele. "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities." Master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009.

How to Cite DVDs, Video, and Film in Chicago Style

Title , directed by First Name Last name (Year; City, State Abbrev: Producer), Format.

Last Name, First Name, dir. Title . Year; City, State Abbrev: Producer, Year. Format.

Example of Chicago Citation for Film, DVDs, or Videos

_Home Lone , directed by Chris Columbus (1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox), DVD.

Columbus, Chris, dir. Home Alone . 1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox. DVD.

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How to Cite Facebook Pages in Chicago Style

Title of Facebook Page, “Text of Post,” Facebook, Month Day, Year, URL.

Title of Facebook Page. “Text of Post.” Facebook, Month Day, Year. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Facebook Post

Awakenings, “Maceo Plex gave us goosebumps during Awakenings Festival! We can't wait to hear what he has in store during Maceo Plex x Lone Romantic | Awakenings ADE Elementenstraat on October 19:awak.enin.gs/2KMxDCH,” Facebook, September 12, 2019, https://www.facebook.com/pg/awakenings/posts/?ref=page_internal .

Awakenings. “Maceo Plex gave us goosebumps during Awakenings Festival! We can't wait to hear what he has in store during Maceo Plex x Lone Romantic | Awakenings ADE Elementenstraat on October 19:awak.enin.gs/2KMxDCH.” Facebook, September 12, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/pg/awakenings/posts/?ref=page_internal .

How to Cite Government Publications in Chicago Style

Title of Publication , prepared by Organization (City, State Abbrev, Year).

Firm/Department. Title of Publication . City, State Abbrev, Year.

Example of Chicago Citation for Government Publication

Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014 , prepared by The Department of Justice (Washington, DC, 2014).

Department of Justice. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014 . Washington, DC, 2014.

How to Cite Interviews in Chicago Style

Published Interviews are treated in Chicago format style like an article in a magazine or a newspaper. Use one of those formats to cite your interview.

How to Cite an E-mail in Chicago Style

According to The Chicago Manual of Style , 17th edition, personal communications, such as letters, e-mails, text messages, and phone calls are usually referenced in the footnotes and endnotes or explained in the text of the paper. They are rarely listed in the Chicago style bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner.

Individual's First name Last name, type of communication, Month Day Year of correspondence.

Example of Chicago Citation for E-mail

Michele Kirschenbaum, e-mail message to author, January 18, 2016.

How to Cite Musical Recordings in Chicago Style

"Title of Song," Year of recording date, Platform, track number on Artist’s Name, Album Title, Producer, Year.

Last name, First name of performer. Title of Album. Recorded Year. Producer.

Example of Chicago Citation for Recordings

"Sucker,” Spotify, track 1, on Jonas Brothers, Happiness Begins , Republic Records, 2019.

Jonas Brothers. Happiness Begins . 2019. Republic Records.

Still wondering how to style a Chicago in-text citation? Remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes! Head to the top of this page to learn more!

How to Cite Online Videos in Chicago Style

First name Last name of individual who posted the video, “Title of Video,” Producer, published on Month Day, Year, Site video, Length, URL.

Last name, First name. "Title of Video." Producer. Published on Month Day, Year. Site video, Length. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Online Videos

“Habitats Work in Texas After Hurricane Harvey,” Habitat for Habitat for Humanity, published on September 11, 2019, YouTube video, 01:35, https://youtu.be/EPPALfWYGRo .

“Habitats Works in Texas After Hurricane Harvey.” Habitat for Humanity. Published on September 11, 2019. YouTube video, 01:35. https://youtu.be/EPPALfWYGRo .

How to Cite Images in Chicago Style

First name Last name, Title of Image , Year, format, Location, State, URL.

Last Name, First Name. Title of Image . Date. Format. Location, State, URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Photographs and Images

Jerome Liebling, May Day , New York, 1948, photograph, The Jewish Museum, New York.
Liebling, Chris. May Day , New York. 1948. Photograph. The Jewish Museum, New York.

How to Cite Live Performances in Chicago Style

Since most live performances are not retrievable by the reader, simply refer to them in the text of the paper or in the notes, and omit it from the bibliography. If it’s a recorded performance, follow the Chicago style format for musical recordings.

Title of Play , music and lyrics by First Name Last Name, dir. First Name Last name, chor. Name of Theatre, City, State Abbrev, Date of Live Performance.

Example of Chicago Citation for Live Performances

The Lion King , Julie Taymor, dir. Garth Fagan, chor. Minskoff Theatre, New York, NY, August 8, 2019.

How to Cite Podcasts in Chicago Style

When citing podcasts in Chicago Style, treat it as an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. If found online, include the url.

How to Cite Poems in Chicago Style

When citing poems in Chicago Style, cite it as you would a chapter in a book.

How to Cite Presentations and Lectures in Chicago Style

Follow the same guidelines as in the “Conference Papers” section above.

How to Cite Sheet Music in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, cite sheet music the same way as you cite books.

Once you’ve styled each and every reference, take a minute to run your paper through our plagiarism checker . It’s the perfect go-to resource when you’re in need of another set of eyes to scan your paper!

Updated January 8, 2020

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.

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